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The Oscillatory Chamber - i.e. an energy storage of huge capacitance, and a magnetic propelling device
#E. Attributes of the cubical "Oscillatory Chamber" of the first generation:
#E1. Why Oscillatory Chambers are better than electromagnets:
The complete elimination of drawbacks inherent in the electromagnets is ensured by the following attributes of the Oscillatory Chamber:
1.The neutralization of electromagnetic forces acting on the structure of the chamber.
2. Leaving to the user's choice the time and amount of energy supply (i.e. each portion of energy, whatever its amount and whenever it is delivered, is collected by the chamber, stored, converted into a magnetic field and released when necessary).
3. The recovery and conversion back into electricity of all the energy dissipated by sparks.
4. The channelling of the destructive consequences of the accumulation of huge electric charges into the direction which reinforces the chamber's proper operation.
5. The independence of the power of control devices from the power involved in field production (i.e. a weak control signal causes a change in the enormously powerful field produced by the chamber).
The Oscillatory Chamber displays also the following unique advantages unknown in any other appliance built by man to date:
A. Producing the kind of magnetic field which does not attract, nor repel, ferromagnetic objects (i.e. which behaves like a kind of "antigravity field", not a magnetic one).
B. The ability to absorb and store theoretically unlimited amounts of energy (accomplished due to the so-called "perpetual oscillations").
C. Full control over all properties and parameters of the field produced, achieved without any change in the level of energy contained in it.
D. Multidimensional transformations of energy (e.g. electricity - magnetic field - heat) which allow the Oscillatory Chamber to take over the function of almost every other conventional energy-converting device (e.g. electromagnets, transformers, generators, accumulators, cells, combustion engines, heaters, air conditioners, and many more).
As the final result of such a formation of the Oscillatory Chamber, this device, when completed, will be able to raise the value of a produced magnetic flux to a level unlimited by theoretical premises. Practically it also means that this source of field will be the first one able to lift itself as the effect of a repulsive interaction with the environmental magnetic field (i.e. the field of Earth, Sun, or Galaxy). Thus the Oscillatory Chamber become our "arkway to the stars".
#E2. Why the Oscillatory Chamber does not attract ferromagnetic objects:
We are accustomed with the fact that every source of magnetic field should attract ferromagnetic objects. Thus, when we realize the power of the field produced by every Oscillatory Chamber, immediately comes to mind the picture of our kitchen appliances, shavers and coins flying to our neighbour because he/she decided to switch on a powerful chamber just purchased. At this point it is the right time to expel our fears: one of the most unusual properties of the Oscillatory Chambers is that they are able to produce a magnetic field which does not attract ferromagnetic objects, even if their output reaches the full power required. This property causes the field produced by such configurations of Oscillatory Chambers to behave rather like a kind of "antigravity" described by authors of science fiction books, not like a magnetic one. The following descriptions explain how it is possible to achieve this unusual property of the magnetic field generated by Oscillatory Chambers.
The framed part in "Fig. #E2" below (which originates from Figure F12 in chapter F of monograph [1/5]) shows approximately the curve of variation in time for the typical field produced by a "twin-chamber capsule", i.e. a configuration of Oscillatory Chambers which is explained in item #F1 below and illustrated in "Fig. #F1" or "Fig. #L1a" from this web page. It takes the course of a "beat-type curve", containing the constant component "Fo" and the varying component "ΔF" (compare the framed part of "Fig. #E2" below, with "Fig. #E3" on the web page immortality.htm - about the immortality and everlasting life accomplishable already at our level of development). It is widely known that the source of a constant magnetic field attracts the ferromagnetic object in its vicinity. Therefore it is obvious that the constant "Fo" component of the chamber's output will also cause such an attraction. However, not many people are familiar enough with magnetodynamics to know that a field varying in time with sufficient frequency "f" induces in conductors the so-called eddy currents. These currents produce their own magnetic fields which, according to the "contradiction rule" applicable to electro-magnetism, are repelled from the original field which induced them. As a result, fields of sufficiently high variation in time repels metallic ferromagnetics. Therefore, the varying component "ΔF" of the chamber's output causes repulsion of all ferromagnetic objects found in the vicinity. This repelling force grows with the increase of amplitude "ΔF" and also with the increase of frequency "f" of the field variations. Therefore, if the control of a configuration of Oscillatory Chambers changes the ratio "ΔF/Fo" of the output, holding constant the frequency "f" of pulsations, then three different kinds of force interaction with ferromagnetic objects can be achieved - as these are illustrated on the diagram from "Fig. #E2" shown below:
(1) When the varying component "ΔF" dominates over the constant "Fo" one, then the total interaction with such objects is repulsive.
(2) When the constant component "Fo" is the dominating one, then the resultant interaction is an attraction.
(3) However, if balance between both these components is reached, then the attraction and repulsion come into equilibrium and neutralize each other. In this case no action of any magnetic force is affecting ferromagnetic objects from the environment of a given configuration of Oscillatory Chambers.
The curve of equilibrium between the attraction and repulsion, shown in "Fig. #E2" below, frames the main parameters of work of configurations of Oscillatory Chambers. It is expected that in the majority of cases the field produced by the Oscillatory Chambers will lie on this curve. Such a field will not influence in any noticeable way the ferromagnetic objects within its range, but will still be able to perform all work imposed on it. When used e.g. for propelling flying vehicles of the Magnocraft type, such a field will cause their flight, but will prevent any force interactions between these vehicles and nearby ferromagnetic objects. Because of this property, outside observers of such vehicles, who have no knowledge of this equilibrium of their magnetic interactions, will probably be convinced that the propulsion of these vehicles utilizes some kind of "antigravitational" field instead of a magnetic one.
In special circumstances, however, the field produced by a configuration of Oscillatory Chambers can be redirected into a chosen interaction. For example, if a militarily oriented magnetic vehicle is chasing a missile or aeroplane, to intercept it, it will change its neutral field into an attracting one. Thus, its attraction force will disable and overpower the object pursued. Similarly, when a magnetically propelled flying vehicle intends to abduct a motor car and its occupants, it could simply pick it up from the road by changing its own magnetic interaction from that of equilibrium into an attraction. Of course, there will also be situations when a repulsive magnetic interaction will be used. For example, in free space the production of a repelling force should be dominant. Then all dangerous objects, such as meteorites (in most cases containing iron), cosmic dust, missiles or satellites, will be repelled from the path of magnetic vehicles. Also, while flying above a hostile planet where inhabitants are known to shoot and launch missiles at any foreign vehicle, the crew of a magnetically propelled vehicle could switch on the repulsive action of its field. Then all bullets and missiles would be repelled from the vehicle without having a chance of reaching and damaging it.
Img.709 (#E2) : The curve of the magnetic "interactions in equilibrium" between the magnetic field produced by a twin-chamber capsule (of Oscillatory Chambers) and all the ferromagnetic objects found in the range of this field.
As it is known, the constant magnetic fields attract ferromagnetic objects. Therefore all fields in which the constant (Fo) component dominates over their pulsating (ΔF) component must attract ferromagnetic objects. The parameters of fields whose constant component dominates lie under the curve from this diagram. It is also known that pulsating magnetic fields repel all conductive (ferromagnetic) objects found in their range. So the fields which the pulsating component "ΔF") dominates over the constant one (Fo) will cause the repulsion of all ferromagnetic objects. The fields with the dominating pulsating component (ΔF) lie above the curve from "Fig. #E2". For the parameters of fields lying exactly at the curve, the attraction and repulsion components mutually neutralize each other. Thus such fields neither attract nor repel any ferromagnetic objects in their vicinity. These fields behave more like an "antigravity field" than a magnetic one.
The frame contains the interpretation of all parameters of the pulsating magnetic fields involved in formation of the curve of magnetic "interactions in equilibrium". (Note that the symbol in text shown as ("Δ" in "ΔF") on the diagram is illustrated as the Greek letter "delta".)
#E3. "Perpetual oscillations" - the key to unlimited energy capacitance:
Let us return to the example of a swing metioned earlier, and consider what happens when we increase the kinetic energy supplied to this device. The amplitude of oscillations increases proportionally to the energy supplied. We may intensify this process to the point when the top horizontal bar will prevent any further increase of amplitude. If we still keep providing energy beyond this point, the conventional swing will be destroyed, as its arm will hit the top horizontal bar and one of these two parts must break.
The above design limitation in the amount of kinetic energy that a conventional swing can absorb has already found a technical solution. Someone has already dropped into the idea of building a swing without a horizontal bar. Thus if we use a modified swing of appropriate design (without a top horizontal bar, but having a rotary horizontal axle instead), a further increase of energy will lead to a unique phenomenon of "continuous oscillating" (which, because of its uniqueness, in chapter F from monograph [1/5] is called "perpetual oscillating"). Swings built especially for high performance usually achieve this. In the "perpetual manner of oscillating" the modified swing's arm follows a circular course, instead of slanting back and forth like in a conventional swing. The energy transformations still exist in it, but the whole oscillating phenomenon obeys different kinds of laws. Thus, the most important attribute of systems capable of perpetual oscillations is that their capacitance for potential energy does not limit the amount of kinetic energy absorbed by them.
If we now analyse the work of a conventional oscillatory circuit with a spark gap, we notice that it behaves in a way identical to the conventional swing described above. Thus such a conventional circuit is the equivalent of the swing with a top horizontal bar. If we start adding magnetic energy to its inductor, then the growing amplitude of oscillations will lead to breakdown within the capacitor and to the destruction of the circuit. The Oscillatory Chamber, however, is the equivalent of the modified swing allowing for perpetual oscillations. If we add further magnetic energy to the energy contained in a stream of sparks (jumping let us say from plate "PR" to plate "PL") then this stream will not terminate at the moment when the opposite plates reach the breakdown difference of potentials "U". This is because the inertia of the stream will still keep "pumping" electrons from plate "PR" to plate "PL", until all the magnetic energy transforms itself into the electric field. However in this instant both plates also start a discharge in the opposite direction, i.e. from "PL" to "PR". Therefore there will be a period of time when two sparks jumping in opposite directions will appear simultaneously between the same pair of segments. The first of them - inertial - will jump from plate "PR" to "PL", whereas the other one - active - will jump from plate "PL" to "PR". This simultaneous appearance of two sparks jumping between the same pair of electrodes will be the electromagnetic equivalent to perpetual oscillating. Because the completion of this unique phenomenon is only possible if various rigorous design conditions are met, the Oscillatory Chamber is the first and so-far the only circuit which allows for the appearance of such phenomenon.
In general we can assert the definition that "the perpetual type of oscillations are attributed only to those oscillating systems whose ability to absorb the kinetic form of energy significantly overcomes their capacitance for potential energy". Such an ability is purely an attribute of design. It is conditioned by the selected parameters and the appropriate structuring of the system. In the case of the Oscillatory Chamber it will be determined by the number of sparks which the device is capable of creating. This number in turn depends on the number of segments "p" separated within the plates.
#E4. Unlimited energy capacitance of the Oscillatory Chamber:
The perpetual oscillating described in item 13 above introduces the ability of the chamber to absorb theoretically unlimited amounts of energy. This property, combined with the capability of the twin-chamber capsule to extinguish completely the produced field (i.e. to turn its entire magnetic energy into the circulating flux - as described before), enables Oscillatory Chambers to be enormously capacious accumulators of energy. The appropriate calculations completed for the Magnocraft can be useful for illustrating what level of capacitance this device provides. For example, the author has determined the amount of energy contained in the field of the Magnocraft type K3 (compare subsection G5.5. from monograph [1/5]). The result, obtained on the assumption that this vehicle produces only the starting flux, was 1.5 TWh (Tera-Watt-hours) - i.e. the present equivalent of two months' energy consumption for a whole country such as New Zealand. Because in the K3 type of Magnocraft the total volume of its Oscillatory Chambers is about 1 cubic meter, this enormous energy will be stored in a device approximately one cubic meter in size. If such a capsule measuring one cubic metre explode by accident, then the destruction caused by the release of magnetic energy it stores would be en equivalent to the exploding of one megaton of TNT.
The magnetic field is already recognized as a perfect means of collecting and storing a large amount of electrical energy. By using cryogenically cooled conductors, even contemporary inductors can store huge amounts of energy for a relatively long period of time. There are a number of research projects investigating this possibility (e.g. Australia National University in Canberra, The University of Texas at Austin, USA). One of the commercial applications seriously considered was to build a heavy cryogenic electromagnet near Paris, which would accumulate electric power in no-load hours and release it to the city at peak-consumption hours.
The ability of the Oscillatory Chamber to store energy completely resolves the problem of energy supply during its operation. For the majority of applications it will be sufficient to charge it fully at the moment of production, and then simply use the device until this energy is fully withdrawn. The amounts of energy able to be stored in such devices allow them to be continuously operative for hundreds of years without the need for recharging.
#E5. Multidimensional transformation of energy:
The energy within the Oscillatory Chamber co-exists in three different forms as: (1) an electric field, (2) a magnetic field, and (3) heat (i.e. a hot dielectrical gas filling the inside of the chamber). These three forms are in a state of continuous transformation from one into the other. Furthermore, the Oscillatory Chamber is able to: (4) produce and absorb light, and (5) produce or consume motion (i.e. mechanical energy). Finally the chamber can also (6) accumulate and store huge amounts of energy for any length of time (i.e. work as an enormously capacious accumulator of energy). Such a situation creates a unique opportunity for the chamber to be utilized in many different ways (not just only as a source of magnetic field), while one type of energy is supplied to it, another type is obtained from it. The following kinds of energy can be supplied to, or obtained from, the Oscillatory Chamber: (a) electricity transferred in the form of an alternating electric current, (b) magnetic energy transferred through the pulsations (changes in density) of a magnetic field, (c) heat accumulated in a hot gas, (d) mechanical energy transferred in the form of the motion of the chamber in relation to another chamber or in relation to the environmental magnetic field, and (e) light which either can be absorbed by the circulating flux of the chamber (see the description of astronomical "black holes" provided in subsection JB6. of monograph [1/5]) or produced after turning the Oscillatory Chamber into a kind of a fluorescent bulb (see descriptions in subsection G1.3 of monograph [1/5]). Depending on which one of these forms of energy is supplied to the chamber, and which one is drawn from it, the Oscillatory Chamber can act as almost any energy producing (or converting) device built to date, e.g. as a transformer, generator, electric motor, combustion engine, heater, photo-cell, searchlight supplied with its own battery lasting for thousands of years, etc. Table F1 from monograph [1/5] combines the most utilitarian applications of the Oscillatory Chamber, exploiting its capacity for multidimensional transformations of energy.
#E6. Amplifying control of the period of field pulsation:
The Oscillatory Chamber will manifest a very high controllability. As in more details this is explained in subsection F7.1. of monograph [1/5], the key to controlling the entire chamber's operation is the period "T" pulsations of its output. Through changing this period also all other parameters of the chamber's operation can be altered. Practically the whole activity of controlling the Oscillatory Chamber will be reduced to influencing the value of period "T" of the chamber's field pulsations.
The final equation (F7) discussed in subsection F5.6. of monograph [1/5] shows how easily the value of "T" can be controlled in the Oscillatory Chamber. At the exploitation stage it is sufficient to limit the entire controlling activities to the change of the "s" factor. By changing the pressure of the gas filling the chamber, or by altering its composition, the "s" factor is influenced. The change in "s" factor in turn introduces the changes in period "T" of the field's pulsations.
To illustrate the essence of the above principle of the chamber's output control, we would need to imagine a hypothetical electromagnet in which all configuration parameters, i.e. the resistivity of wire, the number of coils, and also the geometrical make-up of a conductor, could easily be changed during its operation. Only such an imaginary electromagnet would allow for the output control in a manner used by the Oscillatory Chamber, i.e. through the appropriate manipulation of its configuration parameters, and without the necessity of controlling the power of a current supplied to it. Of course, in reality such an electromagnet is impossible to build. This in turn realizes how much better is the principle employed in controlling the Oscillatory Chamber in comparison to that employed in controlling electromagnets.
The above illustration shows that the chamber uses a very different (and much more convenient) control of oscillations than the one used in real electromagnets. In the Oscillatory Chamber the changes of the dielectric gas constants: O, µ and e - causing the change of "s", are not dependent on the necessity to manipulate the amounts of energy contained in the electric and magnetic fields. Therefore in this device all controlling activities no longer involve wrestling with the power contained inside the chamber. As a result, the power of the control devices is independent from the power of the produced field (i.e. weak control devices can effectively alter the parameters of a powerful field). But in electromagnets every change in a magnetic field requires manipulations to be conducted on highly energetic currents. Thus control of electromagnets involves the same powers as that required for the field production.
#E7. Independence of the magnetic field production from the continuity and efficiency of the energy supply: