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Copyright Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

Magnocraft: a new concept for a magnetically propelled starship

Part #E: Shapes and types of whole Magnocrafts:

#E1: Construction and components of the Magnocraft:

/Translation with DeepL from Polish original, as this has received a newer update in the meantime./

Here is Img.354/ Img.355 (#E1ab) which shows how the Magnocraft is built and looks inside - if its aerodynamic shell covering the side propulsors is cut in the front part of this vehicle:

Fot. #E1a - góra  

Img.354 (#E1a)

Fot. #E1b - dół

Img.355 (#E1b)

Img.354/ Img.355 (#E1ab) Oto ilustracje konstrukcji oraz podstawowych podzespołów Magnokraftów, pokazane na przykładzie wykroju w powłoce najmniejszego z Magnokraftów, oznaczanego jako "typ K3".

Img.354 The above drawing "a" is actually a reproduction of drawing Img.002 (C1a) from my latest monograph [1/5], as well as drawing A1a from my slightly older monography [1/4]. Like all other drawings in his style, I personally prepared it using an engineering drafting method - as I explain in Img.151 (#A1) of this page.

The above drawing Img.354 (#E1a) shows the Magnocraft of the smallest K3 type, in which a cutout made in the aerodynamic cover of its side flange allows its internal structure to be shown. The edges of all the walls made of material impenetrable to magnetic fields in this figure are encircled by a dashed line. The remaining walls (i.e., the aerodynamic shells of all thrusters) are made of material permeable to the magnetic field. Due to its operating principle, the Magnocraft typically flies with its base perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field lines. However, during the landing maneuver illustrated in the figure above, the craft positions its base parallel to the ground surface and extends its telescopic legs "2". During a prolonged landing with the propulsors left in operation, the "M, U" propulsors of the landing Magnocraft type K3 leave on the ground a magnetically scorched (as if by radiation from a microwave oven) ring of vegetation with a nominal diameter of d = 3.1 meters (while the overall diameter "D" of this vehicle is D = 4.39 meters). The main propulsor "M" interacts repulsively with the ambient magnetic field (which can be the Earth's field, the solar field, or the galactic field). Thus, it produces a lifting force "R". On the other hand, n=8 side thrusters "U" interact attractively with the ambient field, producing stabilizing forces "A". Symbols: N,S - magnetic poles and - angle of inclination of the Earth's magnetic field, 1 - crew cabin, 2 - one of the four legs extended for landing.

Img.355 (#E1b) When in the future, after the Magnocrafts are built, some museum of technology will exhibit an exhibit explaining the construction and main components of Magnocrafts of K3 type, then this exhibit will look exactly as in part "b" from the above illustration. After all, in order to show its internal structure and main components, in such an exhibit also a part of its side shell will be cut out. Note that the above illustration significantly exceeds my graphic abilities. After all, its author is this modest, but highly talented our Silesian, whom I already mentioned in the caption under Img.338/ Img.339/ Img.340 (#A2abc) above.


The Magnocraft has two types of magnetic propulsors: main (M) and side (U) - see part (a) of the above figure, and Img.151 (#A1). A single main propulsor (M) is suspended in the center of this vehicle. In the "standing position" of this vehicle, the magnetic poles of the main propulsor "M" are oriented in such a way that they repel the vehicle from the ambient magnetic field (which can be the field of the Earth, the Sun, or the Galaxy). Thus, the thruster (M) produces a repulsive force (in part "a" of the above figure, denoted as the "R" force - from the English word "repulsion"). This force "R" lifts and holds the Magnocraft in space. The magnetic axis of the propulsor (M) is almost always kept tangent to the force lines of the ambient magnetic field existing in the area of operation of this craft. Thus, the most effective orientation of the Magnocraft in flight is when its base is positioned perpendicular to the local direction of the force lines of the Earth's magnetic field. Sometimes, however, this orientation must be slightly altered in order for this vehicle to maneuver or land.

Each Magnocraft also has a certain number "n" of side propulsors (U), placed at equal distances from each other around the circumference of this discoidal craft. In the "standing orientation" of the Magnocraft, the magnetic poles of these side propulsors are oriented so that they attract the ambient magnetic field. In this way, the side propulsors produce a whole series of "n" attractive forces (labeled "A" forces in Img.354 (#E1a) - from "attraction"), which stabilize this vehicle and fix its orientation in space. To increase the stability of this vehicle, the side propulsors are mounted slightly below the main propulsor, forming together with it a kind of bell configuration which in physics is known for its high stability. All these "n" side propulsors are mounted in a horizontal flange that surrounds the base of the Magnocraft. This flange, together with the propulsors contained within it, is shielded by a special lens-shaped aerodynamic fairing made of material permeable by the magnetic field.

#E2. The complete structure of the Magnocraft:

In the Magnocraft, the crew cabin is contained between the main propulsor (M) and the side propulsors (U) - see (1) in part (a) of Img.354 (#E1a). It takes the shape of a conical ring and looks like the side walls of an upside-down saucer. The sheathing (shell) of this cabin is made of a material impenetrable to magnetic fields (i.e. exhibiting the property called "magnetoreflectivity" - that is, reflecting the magnetic field in a manner similar to how a mirror reflects light, see its descriptions in subsection G2.2.1. of my monograph [1/5]). Along the inner (sloping) walls of the crew cabin are mounted telescopic legs (2) of the vehicle. These legs are extended only during landing.

The Magnocraft's shell is a mechanically robust protective shell of magneto-reflective material that holds all the ship's equipment in the required positions and separates the ship's interior from the surrounding space. It is made of transparent material, which, however, has a smoothly controllable degree of reflectivity for light. Thus, at one time (e.g., during the ship's flights near the sun) the Magnocraft's crew can turn this shell into a silvery shiny mirror reflecting completely any light that falls on it, while at other times (e.g., during night flights or in areas with dim light) they can make it completely transparent. When this shell is made transparent, an outside observer can see the ship's internal components (e.g., thrusters, cabins, levels, crew seats, etc.) - as shown in Img.355 (#E1b). Through the ship's transparent shell, its magnetic circuits can also be observed. These circuits are bundles of force lines of the magnetic field, which is so dense that it intercepts light giving the impression of solid formations. When observed from inside the Magnocraft, these circuits look like the branches and roots of a huge tree (in descriptions of the "Eden" called the "tree of life" - see subsection P6.1. of [1/5]), which separate into many "branches" on top of the ship, and also spread into many smaller "roots" under the transparent floor of the ship. Note that there are already quite a few monographs which describe the Magnocraft in detail - as an example of these see volume 3 of monograph [1/5], as well as slightly older monographs [2e] and [1e] .

The final structure of the Magnocraft includes its shell, propulsion system (thrusters), crew cabin, on-board computer, crew life support system, and other vital components and equipment. The general appearance of this final structure is shown in Img.355 (#E1b) from the beginning of this page.


The appearance of the discoidal Magnocraft of the first generation, shown in side view, is illustrated in part (b) of Img.355 (#E1b) /?. In turn, its design is illustrated in part (a) of the same Img.354 (#E1a). The external shape of this vehicle resembles a disk or saucer turned upside down.

The Magnocraft's propulsion system is comprised of devices called "oscillation chambers" (in Img.354/ Img.355 (#E1ab), these chambers are shown as transparent cubes contained inside spherical shells). The Magnocraft has a single main propulsor and "n" side propulsors. The number "n" of side propulsors contained in a given type of Magnocraft is strictly defined by the design conditions described in subsection G4.2. of monograph [1/5]. It is described by the equation n = 4(K-1). This number very unambiguously characterizes a given type of Magnocraft.


Fot. #E2

Img.356 (#E2)

Img.356 (#E2): Here is the appearance of the smallest K3-type Magnocrafts after landing. Note that K3-type Magnocrafts have four telescopic legs that extend from the shell only during landing. (The numbers of legs in other types of Magnocraft depend on the number "n" of their side propulsors and are posited in Table G1 from volume 3 of my monograph [1/5]. If this number "n" is divisible by 3 - as is the case with Magnocrafts of types K4, K7 and K10, then ships of these types have 3 telescopic legs each. Magnocrafts of the other types have 4 legs each). In addition, if the propulsors of this ship continue to work after landing, then their magnetic field burns an annular arrangement of spots in the grass under the ship, shown in brightened color in the above drawing. The above drawing was made by a graphically talented Silesian, whose contribution and assistance to my research I have already explained in the previous illustrations Img.338 (#A2) and Img.355 (#E1b).

#E3. Equations that describe the shape of Magnocraft:

The Magnocraft is a very sophisticated craft. For example, the physical design of this vehicle must fulfill a whole set of very strict conditions that result from the principles of its operation, from the phenomena it induces, from the characteristics of the magnetic field, etc. An excellent example of such conditions is the requirement that the magnetic forces which are generated by the propulsors of this vehicle must mutually balance each other. (As the reader is probably aware, the main propulsor "M" of the Magnocraft attracts to itself each of the side propulsors, thus forming a whole bundle of "centripetal" forces which squeeze this vehicle towards its center. In turn, each side propulsor repels itself from all other side propulsors, thus forming a whole bunch of "centrifugal" forces that tear this vehicle apart. Thus, it is necessary to design the physical structure of the Magnocraft in such a way that this "centripetal" compression is in balance with the "centrifugal" tearing, so that in fact the vehicle is neither compressed nor torn by magnetic forces). As defined by the quantitative deductions published in subsection G4.3. of monograph [1/5], the Magnocraft reaches a state of force equilibrium when its flattening factor "K" expressing the ratio of its overall diameter "D" to its overall height "H" fulfills the equation: K = D/H = n/4 + 1 (where "n" is the total number of side propulsors). Therefore, all Magnocraft-like vehicles must be constructed in such a way that their "flattening factor" (K = D/H) is equal to one of the integer numbers, i.e. equal to either K=3, or K=4, ..., or K=10. This in turn means that there can be 8 basic types of Magnocraft for which their "K" factor takes one of the values between K=3 to K=10. Of course, also all other Magnocraft dimensions must fulfill a set of very strict equations. For example, the overall outer diameter "D" of this vehicle is described by the equation (G16): D = 0.5486*2**K meters (i.e. "D" is equal to the cosmic unit of length of Cc = 0.5486 meters, multiplied by "2" to the power of "K"). Here is a list of these equations, along with a graphical interpretation of the dimensions that are used in them:

Rys. G18.

Img.357 (#E3)

Img.357 (#E3) Here is my technical drawing made with the technique of "ink on tracing paper" and containing a compilation of the most important equations which express the mathematical relationships between the important dimensions and structural parameters describing the Magnocraft's shell. I interpreted the dimensions of this starship appearing in the equations from the above drawing on the outline of a K10-type Magnocraft - a more realistic illustration of which, because it is generated by a computer, is also shown above in Img.348 (#A5abc).

The interpretation of the symbols shown above for Magnocrafts other than K10 types is also shown in Img.064 (G15), Img.069 (G20) and Img.088 (G38) of monograph [1/5].

Symbols: "H" is the overall height of the Magnocraft (from base to apex); "D" is the overall diameter of the Magnocraft (this diameter is expressed by equation (G16): D=0.5486*2**K, hence for the K10-type Magnocraft shown here it is D=561. 76 meters); "DM" and "DS" are the outside diameters of the spherical casings which hold the main propulsor and side propulsors; "K" represents the design factor called "KrotnoϾ" which in successive types of Magnocraft takes "integer" values extending from K=3 to K=10 (for the K10-type vehicle this factor takes the value K = 10); "n" represents the number of side propulsors (in the K10-type Magnocraft this number is n = 36).

#E4. How to determine Magnocraft's type:

Since the design of successive types of Magnocraft must strictly fulfill the series of very important equations detailed above in item #E3 above, these types can be very easily identified by an outside observer. Here is a list of the main methods of identifying the type of Magnocraft-like vehicle observed:

Rys. G20.

Img.174 (#E4)

Img.174 (#E4) A compilation of easy-to-use methods for identifying the type of Magnocraft by determining its type factor "K". Since the design of successive types of Magnocraft must strictly fulfill the series of very important equations detailed above in item #E3, these types can be very easily identified by an outside observer. Here is a list of the main methods of identifying the type of Magnocraft-like vehicle observed:

Since all the technical details of a given Magnocraft are derived from this "K" type factor, hence knowing this factor makes it possible to either read the other dimensions and parameters of this vehicle from Table G1 in [1/5] or to calculate them from the corresponding equations set forth below in Img.357 (#E3) (i.e. Img.067 (G18) from my monograph [1/5]).

#1. A method of finding the ratio of the overall dimensions of a given vehicle. It makes it possible to directly determine the value of the ratio "K" by measuring the apparent overall height "H" of a given vehicle (base to top) and then deducting how many times this height fits into the overall diameter "D" of this Magnocraft (the result of the division K=D/H represents the value of "K" which must take one of the following integer type numbers: K=3, K=4, K=5, K=6, K=7, K=8, K=9, or K=10). In the example shown in this figure, the apparent height "H" is contained three times in the apparent diameter "D" of the vehicle, hence the illustrated Magnocraft is of type K3 (i.e. its type factor is equal to K=3).

#2. A method that involves counting the number "n" of side thrusters. The "K" factor is then determined from the following equation (G9): K=1+n/4 (see also equations G2 and G6 and figure Img.078 (G28) in [1/5]).

#3. A method that involves counting the number of lamps of the "SUB" system. The "K" factor is then determined from the following equation: K=(SUB)/2 + 1.

#4. Method involving counting the number "f" of magnetic waves. The "K" factor is then determined from the following equation: K=1+f, where f=n/4 (see also subsection G7.2. and Img.138 (P19D) and Img.148 (P29) in [1/5]).

#5. A method of counting the number of "crew" members. (not to be confused with passengers). The "K" factor is equal to this number: K=crew (see Table G1 of [1/5]).

#6. A method involving the measurement of the nominal diameter "d" of the annular marks scorched on the soil by the side thrusters of a given vehicle during its landing. The relationship between this diameter and the coefficient "K" is expressed by equation (G34) from [1/5]: d = 0.7758*2**K [meters]. Thus, knowing "d", it is possible to either calculate the value of the "K" factor, or find it from the "K" and "d" columns in Table G1 of [1/5].

#7. A method consisting in identifying the outlines of a given Magnocraft by comparing them to the outlines of all eight types of this vehicle, illustrated, among others, in "Fig. #A2" from this page, while meticulously posed in Img.068 (G19) and Img.089 (G39) from volume 3 of my latest monograph [1/5] ("K" is then defined by this identification).

#8. A method that involves identifying characteristic attributes of a vehicle's interior. Data for this method are provided in subsection G2.5. of [1/5]. In turn, an example of the use of this method is described in subsection P6.1. of [1/5].

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