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/Notes in this color and between two / are from the operator of the German mirror site and translator/.

Copyright Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

Magnocraft: a new concept for a magnetically propelled starship

Part #B: Introductory information of this web page about the Magnocraft:

#B1: Principles of Magnocraft's operation:

The main principle of Magnocraft's operation is based on a well-known empirical observation that every two magnets of similar magnetic size must mutually repel themselves - if they are appropriately orientated towards each other. Thus, when one of these two magnets is our Earth, and the other one is a powerful, human made magnet called a "magnetic propulsor", a suitable repulsive force must be produced. (Especially when "effective lengths", or magnetic sizes, of these two magnets are comparable.) So let us summarise this principle: the Magnocraft flies, because powerful "magnetic propulsors" which are embedded into the structure of this vehicle are repelling themselves from natural magnetic fields that surround Earth, Sun, Galaxy etc.

Of course, the repelling force is used by Magnocraft just to ascend. But when it wishes to descend, the same magnetic propulsors begin to generate forces of magnetic attraction, which pull it toward the ground. The vehicle is also able to generate horizontal thrust, simply by slanting its propulsors or by generating a magnetic equivalent of the Magnus Effect.

One magnetic propulsor alone would not be able to provide adequate flight and manoeuvrability for the Magnocraft, just as a single wheel is not sufficient to construct a motor car. Therefore in the flight of this spaceship a number of such propulsors strictly cooperating with one another must be utilized. The optimal configuration of propulsors, which is able to fulfil all the requirements of flight and manoeuvrability, is called here the "magnetic propulsion unit". Such a propulsion unit used in the Magnocraft is shown in Img.361/ Img.015 (#G3ab) to the right (in order to simplify the explanations that follow, this unit is illustrated above the Earth's north magnetic pole).

The configuration of this "magnetic propulsion unit" is based on the shape of a bell. In turn a bell is the most self-stabilising form out of all simple shapes known to physics. The basing of this configuration on the shape of a bell results from the fact, that in such propulsion unit the distribution of lifting and stabilizing forces resemble a bell-shape, with a single holding point located at the centre, and a ring of stabilizing weights suspended below this point at even distances. (It is well-known from mechanics, that bells represent the physical form that is considered able to provide optimal self-stability in space, while after being put out of balance it always returns on its own to the previous position of stability.)

Let us now analyse main components and operation of the "magnetic propulsion unit". It consists of two different kinds of propulsors, i.e. a single main propulsor (marked "M" in Img.037 (G3) from [1/5] shown on to the right) located in the centre of the vehicle, and a number of side propulsors (marked "U, V, W, X" in this Img.037 (G3) distributed evenly around a lowered ring. According to the condition explained in subsection G4.2. of monograph [1/5], the total number "n" of side propulsors must always be a multiple of four. The main propulsor is usually oriented so as to be repelled by the Earth's magnetic field. (The introductory part to subsection G1. in monograph [1/5] explained that on the north magnetic pole of Earth, such a repulsive orientation of propulsors can be obtained when their north "N" pole is pointed downwards.) The all "n" side propulsors are usually oriented so that they are attracted by the field of the Earth.

By increasing the flux produced by the main propulsor (M) oriented in such a repulsive manner, an increase in the repulsion force "R" is achieved. At the moment when the repulsion force overcomes the gravitational pull, the propulsor "M" begins to ascend, lifting up the entire propulsion unit attached to it. If the main propulsor would operate alone, then its flight would be disturbed by the magnetic torque which would tend to turn around the propulsor's magnetic orientation so that attraction would replace repulsion. Thus, to compensate for the effects of the environmental magnetic torque trying to turn the main propulsor around, additional stabilizing side propulsors "U, V, W, X" are necessary. Their magnetic orientation opposes that of the main propulsor "M", i.e. when the main propulsor is to be repelled, side propulsors are to be attracted by the environmental magnetic field. A possible configuration of such side propulsors is illustrated in Img.037 (G3). These side propulsors give flight stability to the whole propulsion unit. By appropriate adjustment of the produced fluxes, the side propulsors can enforce the balanced orientation of a craft in whatever attitude and position the crew requires.

The propulsion unit described above can operate equally effective in two positions called an "upright position" - see Img.38 (G4) in [1/5]) as well as in an "inverted position". The previous description relates to the upright position. In the inverted position the function of both kinds of propulsors is reversed, i.e. the main propulsor serves as a single stabilizer, and the side propulsors as lifting devices. During horizontal flights in such an inverted position above the Earth's surface, the gravitational pull "G" acts as an additional stabilizer. Therefore, this position combines better stability with less power involved in the magnetic field produced by the vehicle. For this reason, it can be used when the area of flight should be less disturbed magnetically (but for the crew this position is probably less comfortable).

/Translation with DeepL from Polish original, as this has received a newer update in the meantime./

#B2. Magnetic drive system:

Let us now summarize the principle of operation of the Magnocraft. The main propulsor marked "M" in Img.351 (#B2) below, is oriented repulsively with respect to the Earth's natural magnetic field. In order to better illustrate this repulsive force "R", this propulsor "M" is shown hovering exactly above the Earth's north "N" magnetic pole, pointing downward at its "N" pole. However, in reality, such a force of magnetic repulsion can be formed over any point of the Earth, even above the equator - as illustrated in the next figure #G21 below. Of course, if the main propulsor "M" were to work alone, then immediately after ascending it would do a recoil and fall back to Earth. Therefore, it is surrounded by 8 side propulsors rigidly attached to it, which in Img.351 (#B2) below are labeled "U", "V", "W", and "X". These side propulsors are attracted by the Earth's magnetic field. Therefore, they act as magnetic stabilizers.

Rys. G3.
Img.351 (#B2)

Img.351 (#B2) (tj. G3 z [1/5]): Magnocraft propulsion system.

Illustrated are: "M" - single main thruster producing repulsive interactions "R" from the ambient magnetic field (denoted by "M" from the English word "main"); "R" - repulsive interaction force ("R" is adopted from the English word "repulsion"); "U, V, W, X" - eight side thrusters (labeled "U, V, W, X" to show their mutual phase shifts every 90 degrees) oriented to produce "A" attractive interactions with the ambient magnetic field; "A" attractive interaction forces ("A" is adopted from the English word "attraction"). Note that in particular types of Magnocraft the number "n" of side propulsors is described by the equation (G6) and (G2): n = 4(K-1). Thus, the number of n=8 side propulsors is possessed only by the K3-type Magnocraft (for which K=3). Each of the propulsors of the propulsion system shown here contains a single twin-chamber capsule (formed from a smaller inner chamber inserted inside a larger outer chamber - see Img. (F5) below /? mounted in a spherical housing. By properly synchronizing the field pulsations produced by the individual side propulsors, such a propulsion system can produce a rotating magnetic field.

N - the north magnetic pole (i.e. the "inlet" pole
(I) as explained in subsection G5.2. of [1/5]),
S - south magnetic pole (i.e. "outlet" (O) pole as explained in subsection G5.2. of [1/5]),
1 - the supporting structure that connects the individual thrusters together,
d - diameter of the circle passing through the center points (i.e. geometric centers) of all side propulsors; "d" thus also represents the maximum distance between the magnetic axes of any two side propulsors located on opposite sides of a given propulsion system (this dimension, vital for the Magnocraft, "d" is called the "nominal diameter"; "d" can be measured because it represents the diameter of the ring scorched on the ground by the side propulsors of the landing Magnocraft - see Img.083 (G33) from [1/5]);
h - height of the center of the main propulsor above the plane of the bases of the side propulsors;
R - magnetic repulsion force,
A - magnetic attraction force.


If the propulsion system described above is built into a protective shell which will contain an airtight crew cabin and ship's equipment, the final structure of the Magnocraft will be obtained. A general view of such a structure is already shown in the first drawing from this web page (i.e. C1 "b" or G1 "b" /?/). (Note that the numbering of illustrations from this web page, corresponds to the numbering of drawings in scientific monograph [1/5].) In turn, descriptions of the components characteristic of this protective shell of the Magnocraft is the purpose of subsection G2. of monograph [1/5].

#B3. Magnocraft flights above the equator:

Rys. G21

Img.352 (#B3)

Img.352 (#B3) The principle of formation of the force Magnetic buoyancy above the magnetic equator. The main propulsor of the Magnocraft has its magnetic axis aligned parallel to the local course of the environmental magnetic field, while its magnetic poles face the same magnetic poles of the Earth (e.g. the "N" pole of the Magnocraft faces the "N" pole of the Earth, while the "S" pole faces the "S" pole). In this way, the main propulsor forms the significant magnetic buoyancy forces "RN" and "RS" which carry the vehicle into space. The extremely large "effective length" of its magnetic propulsors is significant even when compared with the diameter of the Earth (see descriptions in subsection G5.3 of monograph [1/5]). Thus, in spite of the small physical dimensions of the Magnocraft, its magnetic dimensions can be illustrated in the proportions shown in the above figure.

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