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Copyright Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

Chapter G: The discoidal Magnocraft

G5. The magnetic field of the Magnocraft

The operation of the Magnocraft involves a number of issues concerning the magnetic field of this vehicle. Some of them are very important and sensitive. For example, the issue of the effective length of the Magnocraft's propulsors is overlooked by the majority of those raising critical comments that refer to the uniform character of the Earth's magnetic field. Thus, if people who put forward such comments would become familiar with these deductions before they formulated their objections, most of the criticism directed towards the Magnocraft to date would be avoided. For this reason, the issues mentioned need to be addressed here to give readers a complete understanding of the scientific foundations behind this vehicle. Such an understanding would also enable readers to defend this spaceship from unjustified attacks by various sceptics who do not bother to learn the details of the Magnocraft's theory, but who are nevertheless quite eager to attack it.

Unfortunately, the major issues concerning the magnetic field of this vehicle are rather difficult to understand, and also their comprehension seems to require some background in science or technology. Therefore some readers may find this subsection quite difficult. To minimize the gaps when someone omits the material on the Magnocraft's magnetic field, I have arranged this chapter so that skipping through the subsection that follows should not disadvantage their comprehension of the entire material. But for those readers who are able to work through this subsection, I highly recommend that they do so.

G5.1. The starting flux

Planet Earth, apart from numerous other properties, also acts as a huge magnet. If any man-made source of a magnetic field (e.g. a propulsor) is placed in the range of its field, then magnetic interactions between the Earth and this source must occur. A visual illustration for these interactions in action is the operation of a magnetic compass.

It is commonly known from physics that any two magnets can be so oriented that they repel each other. This can also be achieved with the Earth and any man-made source of magnetic field. Unfortunately in this latter case, the low density of the Earth's magnetic field and its high uniformity cause that the forces of repulsion so created are negligible. But if the man-made device is capable of increasing its magnetic output (and thus also its effective magnetic length), the force of its repulsion from Earth must also increase. Assuming that this source has unlimited capabilities to increase its output, such a moment must inevitably occur when the force of its repulsion from Earth will exceed the gravity pull. Therefore, at this significant moment a very critical output from this device is achieved which initiates its ascent into space. This critical output is called here the "starting flux".

The starting flux represents an extremely important constant for the devices that propel the Magnocraft. Its definition is as follows: "The name, starting flux (Fs), is given to such a ratio of the magnetic flux (F) to the mass (m), i.e. Fs = F/m, that any device oriented repulsively towards the field of the Earth which achieves this ratio must autogenously begin to ascend."

Every man-made source of a magnetic field whose output exceeds the starting flux is able to break a gravity pull by its own force of magnetic repulsion from the Earth's field, and to ascend. Therefore the starting flux represents the magnetic equivalent of the "escape velocity" as applied in conventional space travel. Its value relates to geographical location and is lowest for the magnetic poles and highest for the magnetic equator. For the north magnetic pole of Earth it is equal to Fs=2.59 [Wb/kg]. But for the area of Poland it rises to the value of about Fs=3.45 [Wb/kg].

The starting flux is a physical constant of extreme importance for the magnetic propulsion of flying vehicles. It defines which sources of a magnetic field are only ordinary magnets and which of them can be used as magnetic propulsors. The primary condition for employing any source of a magnetic field as the magnetic propulsor is that its field-to-mass ratio must exceed the value of the starting flux.

From an historic point of view the starting flux constitutes an important breakthrough separating two eras. Until the completion of the device (Oscillatory Chamber) whose output will exceed the starting flux, the era of propulsion systems operating on the principle of circulation of matter - see Table B1 - prevails on Earth (these systems keep our civilization tided to our planet). Upon completion of such a device, the era of the magnetic propulsion of flying vehicles will arrive on Earth. With the arrival of this era our civilization will evolve from a planetary into a galactic level – see the classification of subsequent cosmic civilisations provided in subsection M6.

Up until now our devices for producing a controlled magnetic field (called electromagnets) possess a number of drawbacks which makes it impossible to attain the outputs equal to, or greater than, the value of the starting flux. These drawbacks are listed in subsection F1. The Oscillatory Chamber described in chapter C of this monograph is the first device whose principles of operation allow us to achieve outputs higher than the value of the starting flux.

G5.2. The naming of the magnetic poles

In contemporary physics there is a rule for the naming of the magnetic poles which states that: "the 'North (N) magnetic pole' is understood to be the pole of the magnetic needle tip pointing northward". As a result of this notation, the North geographic pole of Earth is actually adjacent to the South magnetic pole, and vice versa. (Thus all maps that place the northern magnetic pole on the northern hemisphere, while the southern magnetic pole on the southern hemisphere, actually are contradictive to the currently prevailing notation of physics. Thus in the light of physics these maps supposedly misinform their users.)

Perhaps the above complication does not matter in the physical interpretation of electricity and magnetism, and during preparation of maps. But if it is used for the indication of polarity of the Magnocraft’s propulsors in relation to geographic location of this vehicle, it would introduce enormous confusion in all the analysis of the Magnocraft's attributes and behaviours. Therefore, to standardize our understanding of the geographic and magnetic poles, and also to rationalize the description of the Magnocraft's polarity in relation to the geographical location of this spacecraft, in this monograph and in all other my publications, the magnetic poles are named similar to these in cartography not in physics, means as follows: "The north 'N' magnetic pole, or the inlet pole 'I', is understood to be the pole of the Earth's field which exists adjacent to the Earth's north geographic pole, whereas the south 'S' magnetic pole, or the pole 'O', is the one that exists near the Earth's south geographic pole". Simultaneously the colour code that is used to indicate the polarity of magnets is changed, so that it corresponds to colours of the glow of air at outlets from Magnocraft’s propulsors of a given polarity. Thus the colour "yellow" is used to indicate the pole "N". In turn the colour "green" is used to indicate the pole "S".

At this point it is worth to indicate, that the above changes in naming poles of magnets, are still extended by interpretational changes introduced in subsection H5.2. of this monograph. Subsection H5.2. explains what magnetic field actually is according to the new Concept of Dipolar Gravity. According to this explanation, magnetic field is simply a circulating stream of extraordinary substance, in chapters H and I called the "counter-matter". This stream enters every magnet through the "N" pole, and exits this magnet through the "S" pole. Therefore the pole of magnetic field indicated in this monograph as "N" is actually an "inlet" for such a stream of counter-matter. Thus, subsection H5.2. introduces an additional, or new marking "I" for the pole "N". This "I" originates from the word "Inlet". In turn in that subsection H5.2 the pole "S" is marked as "O", means as "Outlet".

It should be stressed that the above definition "N" and "S" is the reverse of the naming of the magnetic poles as used in orthodox physics. It renames the pole "N" from physics into the pole "S", and vice versa. It also changes colours assigned to indicate subsequent poles. This new colours of poles are illustrated in Img.134 (P15). So according to this new naming of poles, at the tip of a magnetic needle pointing towards north the "S" magnetic pole or the "I" pole prevails now (not "N" as previously it was assumed in orthodox physics). Herewith I am appealing to scientists, authors of textbooks, lecturers, teachers, engineers, and students, to follow my example and to gradually introduce this new notation to the use. As I am aware, cartographers turned out to be more rational from orthodox physicists, and introduced this new notation a long time ago. This introduction of a new notation can be initiated by mentioning in newly written textbooks, or on new lectures, that the Concept of Dipolar Gravity from chapters H and I of this monograph provides an extensive explanation for the nature of magnetic field, and thus also for the polarity and naming "I" and "O" of magnetic poles. (For more details see subsection H5.2.)

G5.3. The effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber and the net magnetic force

There is a popular although completely erroneous claim repeated frequently by various "experts" in magnetism, that because of the highly uniform nature of the Earth's magnetic field, a magnetic propulsor is not supposed to be able to produce a sufficiently high net magnetic force to lift a spacecraft. (In this claim two names are used, which require explanation. These are the “uniform” nature of Earth’s magnetic field, and the “net” magnetic force. By the “uniform” nature usually is understood the extremely small gradient of change of this field that takes place in case of changing the coordinates of location. In turn the “net” force is understood as the resultant force of mutual interaction between two magnets, means the difference between mutual repulsion of the like poles of these magnets (e.g. repulsion of N from N and S from S), and mutual attraction of dislike poles (e.g. attraction of N to S, and S to N).) As is explained in this subsection, such a claim is groundless, and it also overlooks many phenomena that are vital for the subject area discussed here. But because it is stated by "experts", who should know what they are talking about, its repetition introduces a significant confusion in people whose educational backgrounds do not concentrate on the area of magnetism. For this reason, the subsection that follows explains the common mistake of "experts" stating this claim, and why the net magnetic force produced by the Oscillatory Chamber is in fact sufficiently high to lift a space vehicle.

The operational size of every bar magnet is described by two parameters, called a "physical length" and an "effective length". The physical length is the length of the physical body of a magnet; the effective length is the length of space in which the field of this magnet prevails. The physical length is very easy to measure, but the measurement of the effective length of a magnet is very difficult and impossible without very precise and complicated equipment. For this reason elementary books on magnetism simplify the equations for the forces of interaction formed by magnets. They express these forces as depending on physical length, whereas in fact they depend only on the effective lengths of the magnets involved. Such simplification does not matter at secondary school level, but it is inexcusable in a consideration of the Magnocraft's behaviour in space. This is the reason why the problem of the effective length of a magnet is highlighted here.

Contrary to physical length which is difficult to change, the effective length of a magnet changes easily. It can be increased in the following three ways, by:
(a) An increase of the physical length of a given magnet.
(b) An increase of the ratio between the density of the field produced by this magnet and the density of an environmental magnetic field.
(c) Spinning of the force lines of the magnet with a very high angular velocity (see the relativistic phenomenon described at the end of subsection D2).

The Oscillatory Chamber represents a magnet of a relatively short physical length, but the ratio of its field density over the density of the Earth's magnetic field may be increased unlimitedly. Therefore the effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber can reach any desired value. The value of the Earth's field density determined for the latitude of the southern boundary of the United States is 5.4x10-5 [weber/m2] (see the book [1G5.3] "General Physics" by O.H. Blackwood and others, 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York 1973, ISBN 0-471-07923-5, page 424). Thus the ratio of the Magnocraft's flux density to the Earth's flux density exceeds the range of 108 (i.e. 10 to the power of 8) when the vehicle produces only the starting flux. But because this spacecraft needs a further power reserve for the purpose of accelerating and manoeuvring, the above ratio should be additionally increased by a range of 104 or even more. This allows us to estimate that the effective lengths of the Magnocraft's Oscillatory Chambers will exceed over a million times their physical dimensions. So in fact a chamber with a physical length of around one meter will extend its effective length to a value of above a thousand kilometres, thus being comparable to the diameter of the Earth. This means that in spite of a small physical size, magnetically the chamber would behave in the same way as would a magnet of such enormous length.

When the magnetic propulsor is so oriented that it is repelled by the Earth's magnetic field, and if the effective length of its Oscillatory Chambers covers the appropriate gradient of the environmental field, a significant repulsive net force must be produced. We know that planetary, solar and galactic magnetic fields are uniform by human standards, i.e. their values do not vary appreciably over the physical dimensions of any man-made object. Therefore, it is not expected that a significant net translation force is exerted on an ordinary magnet of a low output (whose density is comparable to that of the environmental magnetic field), because its effective length could not greatly exceed its physical dimension. But for the outputs from the Oscillatory Chamber exceeding the value of the starting flux, the effective length of this device is comparable to the size of the Earth. Thus it easily overcomes the uniform character of the field of the Earth, Sun or Galaxy. Therefore such a chamber must produce a significant net repulsive force capable of lifting not only this device, but also a heavy spacecraft attached to it.

This is why the Oscillatory Chamber can be used as a magnetic propulsor, and why individuals claiming otherwise are mistaken while their real knowledge on magnetism is probably shallow and incomplete.

G5.4. The determination of the value for the "starting flux"

Let us assume for a moment that we have a hypothetical bar magnet whose properties correspond exactly to those of the Oscillatory Chamber. This means that the output (F) of this magnet can be increased to an infinitively large value, and also its length is comparable to the effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber (i.e. about a thousand kilometres). Let us also assume that we place this hypothetical bar magnet in a vertical orientation on the north (N) magnetic pole of the Earth. Thus its north pole (N) is close to the ground and is pointed downwards, whereas its south pole (S) extends to the height where the Earth's magnetic field is almost completely non-existent. Because of the enormous length of this hypothetical magnet, the repulsive force (R) created by the north pole of the Earth acts on its north magnetic pole, whereas no force acts on its south pole as it is extended too far in cosmic space. Therefore the net magnetic force acting on this magnet is equal to the repulsion (R) of its north pole with the north magnetic pole of Earth (the attraction between the north magnetic pole of Earth and the south pole of the magnet is negligible).

Simultaneously with the magnetic force (R), the hypothetical magnet will also be acted upon by the gravitational pull (G) which is determined by gravitational acceleration (g). If we assume that the mass of this source of field is equal to (m), we can determine the value of this gravitational attraction:

G=mg       (G22)

On the other hand we know the magnetic flux (F) which is produced by our hypothetical magnet and we know also the strength (H) of the Earth's magnetic field. This allows us to determine the force (R) of reciprocal repulsion occurring between our source of field and the Earth's magnetic field. The value of this force is described by the definition of the field's strength, fundamental in magnetism. This definition states that "the field strength (H) at a point is the force (R) exerted on a unit north pole (F) at that point" (see [1G5.4] Loeb L.G. "Fundamentals of electricity and magnetism", Dover Publications Inc., New York 1947, pp. 29 and 49). This can be expressed by the following equation:

R=HF [dyn]       (G23)

For the hypothetical magnet to ascend, the condition must be met that its repelling force (R) must overcome the gravitational pull (G):

R > G       (G24)

If in the relation (G24) we replace the variables by the equation (G22) and (G23) we find that our hypothetical magnet begins to ascend when the ratio of its magnetic flux (F) to its mass (m) exceeds the value:

 F    g
─ > ─ [Mx/gram]       (G25)
m   H

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "/" means division, the equation (G18) takes the following form: F/m > g/H. The relation (G25) has been derived for the CGS Unit system only. After its conversion into SI Units it takes the form:

 F      4πg
─ > ───── [Wb/kg]       (G26)
 m      H

The ratio of F/m in the relation (G26) is called here the "starting flux" and we label it with the letters Fs: Fs=F/m       (G27)

After introducing the definition of the starting flux, the final form of the relation (G26) is the following:

Fs > ───── [Wb/kg]       (G28)

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "*" means multiplication, while the symbol "/" means division, the relation (G28) takes the following form:

Fs > 4*π*g/H (where the symbol "π" is a constant "pi" approximately equal to π = 3.1415926...).

The relation (G28) describes the value of the starting flux which must be produced by the Oscillatory Chamber in order to begin the ascent.

To determine the value of the starting flux at the north magnetic pole of the Earth, we must substitute the variables in the relation (G28) with their appropriate values. Taking the strength of the Earth's magnetic field at the north magnetic pole H = 0.6 [Oe] = 47.75 [A/m] and the gravitational acceleration g = 9.81 [m/s2], we will receive Fs > 2.59 [Wb/kg]. This means that the Oscillatory Chamber starts to ascend from the north magnetic pole of the Earth when each kilogram of its mass yields a magnetic flux larger than 2.59 Weber. Because the Earth's field is strongest at the pole, the starting flux will increase proportionally to the distance from the Earth's magnetic pole. For example, at Poland's latitudes it is over 3.45 [Wb/kg]. Certainly the field sources utilized for propulsion must be much more efficient than this, because they carry not only themselves but also the whole structure of the craft. As well, they must possess the reserve of power to enable them to accelerate the vehicle in the weakened fields of free space.

The above deduction of the equation for the starting flux, and also the determination of its value, were presented for the first time in the article [1A] "Teoria rozwoju napedów" (i.e. "The theory of propulsion development"), published in the Polish Journal Astronautyka, no. 5/1976, pp. 16-21.

G5.5. The “energy of inflation” contained in the Magnocraft's field

We also need to consider the problem of the amount of energy contained the magnetic field of the Magnocraft, and the amount of this energy consumed during flights. The first impression is that this energy should be high. After all, the calculations of the starting flux indicate that the special density of energy contained in propulsors of the Magnocraft is huge. But analysis provided in this subsection has shown that such an impression is erroneous. Although this vehicle in fact does accumulate in propulsors an enormous amount of energy, similarly like a balloon accumulates a lot of gas in the casing, but out of this huge energy only a small fraction is actually being consumed. So during flights the Magnocraft consumes only a small fraction of the energy required by a supersonic aeroplane of the same size (mass).

Our deductions regarding the energy of Magnocraft’s field we need to start from reminding ourselves, that according to principles of physics, the production of attracting or repelling forces by a magnetic field do not consume energy. For example, a permanent magnet can interact with the Earth's field for millions of years without losing its power. Also the electric current in the closed circuit of a superconductive electromagnet can circulate for many years and produce the same value of the magnetic field which interacts with the field of the environment. Therefore, producing the thrust and stabilization forces in the Magnocraft does not require the expenditure of any energy, and this fact is independent of the speed of the craft. The Magnocraft flying in this manner is similar to a balloon soaring rather than to the thrust of a rocket.

The energy consumption of the Magnocraft is caused only by: acceleration of the craft; production of the magnetic whirl which has to fight against friction (this friction is absent in free space); inducing currents in objects in the environment; electromagnetic radiation; and the so-called “energy of inflation”, which also can be called the "initial energy", necessary to create (but not maintain) the magnetic field of high intensity.

We should also remember at this point that the energy of the Magnocraft's field is self-rechargeable, i.e. its consumption during an acceleration of the vehicle is replaced by its recovery during deceleration. More on this subject is explained in subsection G5.6. below.

The “energy of inflation”, which also can be called the initial energy, is the entire energy accumulated in the magnetic field of this vehicle. Illustratively it could be compared to the electrical energy consumed by a car's starter motor during the starting of the engine, or to the energy used for pumping gas into a balloon casing. It is spent only once - during the starting of the Magnocraft's propulsors. Therefore it is obtained from an outside source of energy, which is accessible at the starting sites of the Oscillatory Chambers. The value of this energy is equal to the sum of energy contained in the fields generated by each vehicle's propulsor.

It is possible to calculate the energy involved in this “energy of inflation” or "initial energy". Because this calculation provides scientific foundations for many of my claims and theories, it is presented below. One of best examples of the application of this calculation, is my theory published in monographs from series [5], e.g. in the monograph marked [5/3] in chapter Y. This theory states that in 1178 AD the magnetic energy contained in propulsors of seven UFOs type K6 were released rapidly near a small township Tapanui in New Zealand. The release of this huge energy caused in turn a total destruction of New Zealand and a significant destruction of the rest of world, as well as a polar shift of our planet.

Let us now proceed with the calculation of the amount of “energy of inflation” contained in the field of a smallest Magnocraft type K3. We know that if the density of the magnetic flux (f) is increased from zero to f, the energy density stored in the magnetic field (e) will be expressed as (see [1G5.5] Slemon G.R. Straughen: "Electric Machines", Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, USA, 1980, page 18):

         f              f2
e=∫────df=───── [J/m3]       (G29)
    o   μo          2μo

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "*" means multiplication, while the symbol "itgs(0,f(F,x))" means the integral from function F along variable x within the boundaries 0 to f, the equation (G29) takes the following form:

e = itgr(0,f((f/μo)f) = (f*f)/(2*μo).

Our calculations of the “energy of inflation” contained in the magnetic field of the smallest Magnocraft type K3 we start from determining this energy density “e” for the magnetic field that surrounds this vehicle. In order to determine this density, we need to make several substitutions in the above equation (G29). For the density “f” of magnetic flux we substitute the ratio f=Fs/s. This ratio represents the value of the smallest starting flux Fs=2.59 [Wb/kg] obtained from equation (G28), divided by this part s=0.00785 [m2] of the K3 Magnocraft's entire base area “S”, which belongs to one kilogram of the mass “m” of this vehicle, i.e.

s = S/m = πD2/4m.

(Notice that data required for determining the value of “s” provides Table G1.)

For “μo” we substitute the magnetic permeability of free space

μo=4 · π · 10-7 [T · m/A].

After the appropriate calculations are carried out, we obtain the result that the initial energy density “e” required for a K3 type Magnocraft to ascend from the North magnetic pole of the Earth is approximately e=12 [MWh/m3] for each kilogram of the craft's mass. This density is to prevail only in cases when the Magnocraft type K3 is to produce the smallest value of the starting flux “Fs”. (I.e. “e” is the density of energy required for a Magnocraft type K3 to ascent in space from the Northern magnetic pole of Earth, on which prevails the most dense magnetic field of Earth.) Of course, this value of “e” must be increased, if the strength of the local environmental field at the area where the Magnocraft operates is smaller than the strength of the Earth’s field at the North magnetic pole of Earth – this practically is to be the case for every area of Earth other than the North magnetic pole. Value of “e” must also be increased proportionally to the maximal acceleration for which the craft is designed.

After determining the density of energy “e”, while knowing also values of the mass “m” for subsequent types of Magnocraft which are listed in Table G1, and considering the distribution of the magnetic field around the Magnocraft, the total energy of inflation “E” can now be found. For example, the estimative calculation of this energy for the smallest Magnocraft of K3 type gives an approximate result of 1.5 [Tera · Watt · hours]. To give an idea of how great this is, it is worth to disclose that around 1984 it represented the equivalent to two months' consumption of all types of energy by the entire country such as New Zealand. Means it represented the equivalent for two-month consumption by all New Zealand not only the electrical energy, but also petrol and other liquid fuels, coal, gas, crude oil, etc., means everything that provided New Zealand with energy. It is also worth to notice, that from then until today this total consumption of energy have not increased so much at all.

The storing of such enormous amounts of energy within the Oscillatory Chambers of a Magnocraft transforms this vehicle into a flying bomb of tremendous power. Let us now determine the destructive potential of this bomb in the event of the Magnocraft accidentally exploding. We know that one ton of TNT releases ETNT = 4.18x109 [Joules] (or ETNT = 1.61 [MWh]) of energy - see the book [2G5.5] "McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms", Third Edition, 1984, ISBN 0-07-045269-5, page 1656 (term: "ton"). This means that the explosion of the smallest, K3 type Magnocraft whose Oscillatory Chambers are loaded with E = 1.5 [TWh] of magnetic energy, would be equivalent to a blast of almost one-megaton thermonuclear bomb, or to the simultaneous exploding of almost 80 atomic bombs similar to the one dropped on Hiroshima. Also, the major effects of a detonation of the smallest Magnocraft type K3 would be the same as the effects of such a powerful hydrogen bomb explosion. Only the area destroyed would not be polluted by any radioactive isotopes, so that this area could be populated again almost immediately.

At the end of this subsection it needs to be emphasised, that the determined above value E = 1.5 [TWh] of magnetic energy, was calculated after the assumption, that the Magnocraft K3 produces only the starting flux equal to Fs = 2.59 [Wb/kg], which lifts it in space from the northern magnetic pole of Earth (i.e. the weakest out of all starting fluxes that would be required to list it to space). But as this is highlighted in subsection G5.3. above, the real magnetic flux that is required for the reliable flight and manoeuvring of this vehicle can be even by 104 more powerful. Thus it is possible that the amount of magnetic energy contained inn the field of a smallest Magnocraft of K3 type is also larger from that calculated above by the range of 104 times.

G5.6. The energy of the Magnocraft's field is self-rechargeable

The electric motors operating on the principle of interaction between magnetic fields have introduced a new quality unknown before in steam or combustion engines. They are able to recover during their decelerating the energy consumed for accelerating. Therefore an electric train or tram, when decreasing its speed, may turn its own motors into generators and return the electricity to the overhead powerline.

The above phenomenon also applies to the Magnocraft. This vehicle, when accelerating, transforms the energy of its magnetic field into a kinetic energy of its motion. But when decelerating the process is reversed, and its magnetic field becomes recharged. Therefore, if a long interstellar voyage which does not involve any friction is completed, the Magnocraft's field should contain the same amount of energy it had at the moment of starting (initial energy). Thus we may say that the energy resources within the Magnocraft are self-rechargeable.

G5.7. Why the Earth's magnetic field should not be called "weak"

In our view of the Earth's magnetic field a stereotype opinion prevails that it is too "weak" to be able to support a space vehicle. Let us analyze the validity of this view.
As far as the magnetic field is concerned, the terms "weak" and "strong" describe the amount of energy contained in this field. The indicator for this amount is the work needed to remagnetize a given source of the field, i.e. to exchange its north magnetic pole into south and vice-versa. So by a weak magnet is understood a magnet which, when acted upon by the field of the other magnet, easily changes the orientation of its poles, almost without absorbing any energy during this process. However, if we try to imagine or calculate the amount of energy necessary for remagnetizing the Earth - that means to change its north magnetic pole into its south magnetic pole and vice-versa - we very quickly come to the conclusion that the Earth's field is extremely strong. It is not possible by any means to remagnetize this field by the field of even the heaviest spacecraft that can be built. However, the field of the Earth, because of the dimensions of our planet, stretches into a vast distance in space. This in turn decreases its density. People who do not understand the direct relationship between the amount of the field's energy and its strength wrongly use this low density as justification for calling the Earth's field "weak". I would suggest, that instead of calling the Earth’s field “weak”, we should rather describe it with the more precise expression of a field of “low density”.

G5.8. The Earth's magnetic field is able to carry out technically useful work

The spreading of the Earth's magnetic field over a large area causes a decrease of its density to the level where it is unable to form any technically significant force interactions. This is the reason why in our technical projects we ignore the influence of the field of the Earth. This tendency is now advanced to the extent that we automatically assume that this field is unable to complete any technically useful work at all. The following example indicates how wrong this assumption is.

Mr H.G. Slingsby (Half Moon Bay, Stewart Island, New Zealand) built a magnetic motor which, instead of having a stator, uses the Earth's magnetic field. This motor works on a principle which is a combination of a DC motor and the magnetic needle of a compass. Mr Slingsby connected twelve horizontal electromagnets, positioned like the points of a star around a vertical axle, with the commutator attached to this axle. The commutator provided the current only to the electromagnets which were oriented in an east-west direction, and disconnected the electromagnets which were oriented north-south. The switching on of the current caused the electromagnets to act like the needles of a powerful compass which tried to turn in a north-south direction. This forced the rotation of the whole set of magnets that were joined to the commutator. As a result, when some of these electromagnets were disconnected from the current after reaching a north-south orientation, the current was then supplied to the next electromagnets pointed east-west, and so on. So in the final outcome, the entire device rotated continually like an ordinary electric motor, providing the user with a continuous mechanical power.

Mr Slingsby's motor proves that mechanical motion can be obtained from the Earth's magnetic field, and that this motion can display the same power that some people believe could only be produced by a technically induced field of high density (i.e. similar to that which appears in modern electric motors). Thus, his motor empirically demonstrates that the natural magnetic field of the Earth, Sun, or Galaxy, can be a source of technically useful motion which carries significant power and speed, including into this also motion required for propelling flying vehicles. In this way the Slingsby's motor proved empirically that the Magnocraft definitely can be built, and that it will operate correctly while utilizing the natural environmental field for flights.

G5.9. Joe Newman’s experiment which demonstrates a magnetic propulsion for balloons

In quarterly [1G5.9] Borderlands, vol. XLIX, Four Quarter 1993, page 40, a report by Peter A. Lindmann is published. It comments on the conference entitled “Extraordinary Science”, which was organised by the “International Tesla Society” (POB 5636, Colorado Springs, CO 80931, USA), that took place on 22 to 25 July 1993 in the Hotel “Sheraton South” from Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA. This report describes, amongst others, an experiment demonstrated by one of the paper presenters from this conference, i.e. a person named Joe Newman. This experiment, according to the interpretation of its creator, was carried out in order to directly prove the possibility that a lifting force can actually be produced by the magnetic field of Earth. Here is description of it, quoted from the above report:

"Next came Joe Newman. {...} He gave two demonstrations. {...} Joe's second demonstration was quite novel. A large mylar baloon filled with helium was wrapped with many turns of fine copper wire. The balloon was blasted so that it was nearly weightless, but resting on the ground. Current was applied to the wire and the balloon rose. Joe explained that the balloon lifted off the ground because a large {...} magnetic field around the balloon was floating on the earth's magnetic field. No one believed it. Everyone I spoke with thought that the current in the wire warmed the balloon slightly changing the buoyancy point, causing lift-off for convectional reasons {...} At one point, {...} the wires came off the power supply, but the balloon showed no immediate tendency to drop. This seemed to strengthen the skeptics explanation of lift caused by heating, which would have a residual effect. Joe's demonstrations worked perfectly, but no one believed his explanations."

The above description reveals several interesting g facts. The first of these is, that the ability of Earth’s magnetic field to lift a magnetic spaceship in space, can be confirmed with relatively simple experiments. These experiments allow even to complete quantitative measurements, such as e.g. determining what value of propelling field introduces which value of lifting buoyancy. The second fact is, that the present stereotype of thinking, according to which many people believe that the Earth’s magnetic field is unable to carry out any useful work, is already so rooted into minds of people, that even the visual observation of effects of actual action of this field is unable to change this stereotype thinking. The third fact is, that in matters of sticking to views rooted into their minds, people do not use any logic. For example, it is logical that that the electrical resistance of a copper wire is so small, that without a precise control equipment it would be extremely difficult to cause a slight heating of this wire, without simultaneous overheating it. Simultaneously, even a short-term overheating of this wire would cause the melting of plastic casing of the balloon. On the other hand, any balloon close to weightlessness hovering in the air, will not descend immediately on the ground, because of the friction with the air. So if the above premises one applies logically to the experiment of Joe Newman, then the objections of observers described above (that this experiment did NOT demonstrated what the creator of it intended) have no validity. In order to verify this, readers are encouraged to repeat this experiment with appropriate prevention measures, e.g. with the use of thermal insulation that would completely eliminate the possibility of heating of balloon by coils of wire. After all, the truth always can be proved, if someone does not close his or her mind to it. (Or more strictly – if someone’s mind is not manipulated by UFOnauts to not even consider a given truth which is running against occupational interests of these cosmic parasites of humanity – for details see subsection VB4.2.)

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