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Copyright Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

Chapter G: The discoidal Magnocraft

G4. Conditions defining the shape of the Magnocraft's shell

Every type of propulsion imposes a unique set of requirements on the vehicles which utilize it. These requirements cause that a given type of vehicles must always display certain fixed attributes, independently of who builds them, and when and where they are built. An example of such fixed attributes can be the wheels of a car, which must always be underneath it (e.g. even the most advanced cosmic intelligence is unlikely to build a car whose wheels are placed on the upper side). Other examples can include the wings of an aeroplane (it is impossible to build an aeroplane without some form of wings) and the hull of a boat (which must have an aerodynamic shape). The propulsion used in the Magnocraft also imposes a set of such unchangeable requirements. They dictate that the shell of this vehicle is strictly defined by a set of mathematical equations. The subsection that follows reviews the most basic conditions which the shell of the Magnocraft must fulfil, and presents the impact of these conditions on the final shape of this vehicle.

In subsection B2.2. the primary requirement for building a controllable propulsion system was described. This requirement states that “the principle of operation of the propulsion must allow the working medium to circulate through the environment”. For the Magnocraft this means that its magnetic field must form closed circuits whose paths must cross the environment. To fulfil this condition, the shell of this vehicle must be shaped in such a way that:

#1. Both outlets from every propulsor must open out onto the environment.
#2. Both poles of the same propulsor must be separated from each other so that the magnetic field is forced to circulate around the outside of the vehicle (i.e. not by any chance through the interior of the vehicle).

#3. Every propulsor must be located in a separate chamber which only opens out onto the environment so that the magnetic field is prevented from forming circuits within the craft.

Above describes only one of numerous conditions that the shell of the Magnocraft must fulfil. This condition makes us realize that the vehicle is also subject to a distinct chain of causes and effects. In this chain causes are unique requirements imposed by the principles of operation of the Magnocraft, whereas effects are the ways in which the construction of the Magnocraft must be formulated so that it fulfils all these requirements. This cause-effect chain very strictly defines the shape and the mutual ratio of dimensions of the vehicle. After being processed into mathematical form, these definitions take the form of a set of equations which the shape of the Magnocraft must fulfil. This subsection A4 is to deduce and to explain each equation of this basic set.

The consequence of the chain of causes and effects described above is that not many details are left to the choice of the designer of the Magnocraft. Almost every element of its shell, every dimension and shape is strictly defined by numerous conditions. Let us now, one by one, analyze each such cause and mathematically describe its effects.

G4.1. The condition of equilibrium between the thrust and stabilization forces

The Magnocraft's propulsion must be so designed, that it allows equally effective flights in both possible positions, i.e. upright and inverted – as these are shown in Img.038 (G4). In turns, as this was explained earlier, in each of these two positions different propulsors perform functions of the producers of lifting forces and stabilisation forces. There are also some situations, for example coupling and decoupling into flying arrangements (see subsection G3.), or during the formation of lying clusters (see subsection G3.1.6.), where the function of particular propulsors must be reversed. For example the main propulsor must then be changed from operating as a lifter into operating as a stabiliser, while side propulsors from being stabilisers are changed into lifters. These reasons make it necessary for the propulsion unit of the Magnocraft to be designed in such a way that "the total output produced by all the side propulsors is equal to the magnetic output provided by the main propulsor". Only in case when the above condition is met, than any kind of propulsor (i.e. the main or the side) at any moment of time can be selected to be used for propelling, or to be used for stabilization. Because the force of magnetic interaction is proportional to the output from the propulsor, the requirement presented here is called the "condition of the equilibrium between the thrust and stabilization forces".

The propulsors of the Magnocraft of the first generation are to be built as cubical twin-chamber capsules and are assembled inside spherical casings – like ones shown in Img.036 (G2). The external diameters of these spherical casings, namely DM for the “main propulsor” and Ds for “side propulsors”, are the parameters that directly impact the shape and dimensions of the vehicle's shell - see subsection G1. But the diameters DM and Ds of the propulsors' casings must depend on the output provided by the chambers located within them. This dependence results from the requirement that in the state of magnetic equilibrium, the density of energies in the main and side propulsors should be equal. To achieve such equality in density of these energies in all propulsors, the volume of the spherical main propulsor must be equal to the volumes of all "n" side propulsors, i.e.

(πDM3/6) = n(πDs3/6)      (G3)

When the above equation (G3) is transformed and reduced, the final form of the equation describing the condition of the equilibrium between the thrust and stabilization forces is derived. This equation takes the form:

DM = 3/nDs      (G4) where "n" is the number of side propulsors in a given type of the Magnocraft. (So the equation (G4) states that the diameter "DM" of the main propulsor is equal to the diameter "Ds" of side propulsors multiplied by a cubical root of "n".)

By applying the equation (G4) to the shell of the Magnocraft, the mutual ratio between the thickness of the flange (Ds) and the thickness of the body of the vehicle (DM) can be determined for each type of craft, if we know only the number "n" of its side propulsors.

G4.2. The condition that the number “n” of side propulsors must be a multiple of four

Subsection F7.1. explains that magnetic energy may escape from one Oscillatory Chamber to another chamber, if the fields of these chambers pulsate with a phase shift which is different from the exact value of “π/2”, or from a multiple of this value. On the other hand - as explained in subsection G7.2., the formation of a "magnetic whirl" which allows manoeuvring and latitudinal flights of the Magnocraft, is impossible without introducing a phase shift between pulsations of fields in subsequent side propulsors of this vehicle. Therefore, to eliminate the escape of magnetic energy from one side propulsor to other, but at the same time to enable the formation of a magnetic whirl, the condition must be imposed that the phase shift "Φ" in pulsations of a vehicle's propulsors always fulfils the equation:

Φ=i(π/2)·      (G5)
where i=0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 (i.e. this phase shift is always either equal to zero or to a multiple of the “π/2” angle, where “π” is the constant "pi" equal approximately to “π = 3.1415926...”). To fulfil this condition without compromising the symmetry of magnetic interactions in relationship to the central point “O” of the vehicle, the Magnocraft must be designed so that the number "n" of its side propulsors is always equal to a multiple of four, and is expressed by the following equation:

n = 4(K-1)

Equation (G6) expresses the number “n” of side propulsors which must be assembled in a given type of the Magnocraft as a function of the “K” coefficient which defines this type (the “K” coefficient is described in more details in subsection G4.4. below).

G4.3. The basic condition for the force stability of the structure of a craft which uses magnetic propulsors

The Magnocraft's propulsors not only produce the forces which propel this vehicle, but also form the internal forces of magnetic interactions amongst themselves. If unbalanced, both these types of forces would be transferred onto the physical structure of the craft, where they could cause tensions, fatigue of material, and subsequent fast destruction of the shell and entire vehicle. To eliminate any negative impact of these forces on the vehicle's shell, their value and directions must be so selected, that they neutralize one another. The condition under which all forces appearing within the Magnocraft neutralize one another, is called here the "basic condition for the force stability of the structure of a craft with magnetic propulsion", or briefly, the "condition of stability". The detailed versions of this condition apply to all vehicles that utilise magnetic propulsors, means to the discoidal Magnocraft described in this chapter, and also to personal propulsion system described in chapter E and to four-propulsor vehicle described in chapter D. Only that for these other propulsion systems the mathematical expression of this condition is to take slightly a different form.

All forces appearing within the Magnocraft are presented in Img.064 (G15). They can be classified into two basic groups, namely: (1) the external forces resulting from interactions between the propulsors and the environmental magnetic field, and (2) the internal forces resulting from interactions between successive propulsors themselves.

To the group of external forces that are formed as the outcome of force interaction of propulsors with the environmental magnetic field belong:

(R) - namely the force of magnetic repulsion of the main propulsor from the environmental field.
(A) – namely forces of attraction between all "n" side propulsors and the environmental magnetic field.

Note that during a Magnocraft's free hovering in the absence of gravitational interactions, the above forces must meet the condition:

R = n · A = Ref (where "Ref" is a reference constant)       (G7)

In turn the interactions between the subsequent propulsors themselves, consist of two groups of different forces. These are:

(Q) – i.e. forces of attraction between the main propulsor and each side propulsor. Note that each such attraction force (Q) can be further resolved into the radial component (Qd) and axial component (Qh).
(E) – i.e. the force of mutual repulsion between each side propulsor and the other side propulsors. Note that all repulsion forces (E) acting on the same side propulsor can be combined together giving the radial pull (Ed) which tries to tear the vehicle apart in the radial direction.

If we analyze the above forces appearing in the Magnocraft's structure, we notice that they form a rather beneficial pattern. Namely in every direction two forces act in opposition to each other, and thus the action of which mutually neutralises each other. The kinds of action exerted by these forces on the vehicle's shell are as follows:

#1. Axial tension. It is created by the opposite forces (R) and (A), one of which is pulling the vehicle upward, while the other is pushing it downward. The value of these forces depends only on the output from the propulsors, i.e. on the "Ref" from equation (G7). #2. Axial compression. It is formed by the axial components (Qh) of facing forces (Q) produced in each interaction between the main propulsor and each side one. The value of this (G6) compression depends on the ratio of the craft's dimensions "d/h" and on the "Ref" from equation (G7).

#3. Radial tension. This is introduced by the radial pulls (Ed). The value of this tension depends on the "Ref" from equation (G7) and on the number "n" of side propulsors.

#4. Radial compression. This is produced by the radial components (Qd) of the attraction forces (Q) between the main propulsor and each side propulsor. Its value depends on the ratio of the craft's dimensions "d/h" and on the "Ref" from equation (G7).

It is not difficult to notice, that directions of actions of above forces are such, that these forces mutually cancel each other. Therefore, through an appropriate manipulation of the factors that define the values of these forces, i.e. ratio of the craft's dimensions "d/h" and the number of side propulsors "n", the mutual equilibrium between the forces can be achieved. As an effect of this equilibrium, the opposite forces reach equal values, i.e. Qd=Ed and Qh=A, so their actions reciprocally neutralize one another. The state of such an equilibrium is obtained when the Magnocraft's design fulfils the following condition:

   d       n
─── = ─── + 1       (G8)
   h       4

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "/" means division, while the symbol "+" means addition, the condition (G8) takes the following form:

d/h = n/4 + 1.

A wooden barrel is a good example of an object which maintains the equilibrium of its forces in a manner almost identical to that utilized in the Magnocraft's shell. So such a barrel can be used for illustrating the essence of the force equilibrium explained in this subsection. A barrel consists of a number of hooped staves that try to expand outwards and thus repel one another like the Magnocraft's side propulsors (these expansion forces in a barrel are equivalent to "Ed" forces formed by the Magnocraft's side propulsors). But simultaneously metal hoops compress these staves inwards, similarly as forces "Qd" do to the structure of the Magnocraft. The force equilibrium reached through the mutual balance of these expansion and compression forces constitutes the barrel's own "condition of stability". The fulfilment of this condition provides the ordinary wooden barrels with their excellent robust qualities. After all, for such barrels their flexibility, endurance, resistance to being hit, etc. cannot be matched by any other containers prepared by humans, in spite that currently such containers are prepared from incomparably more modern and much more advanced materials.

The equation (G8) expresses the mathematical formulation of the "condition of stability" for the Magnocraft. The magnetic forces produced by the vehicle that fulfils this condition form a kind of invisible skeleton, or framework, which surrounds the Magnocraft's physical structure. This invisible skeleton is called here the "magnetic framework". The magnetic framework itself does not exert any forces on the vehicle. Moreover, it also protects the vehicle's shell from the action of other external forces directed at it. The principle of this protection is discussed in separate subsection G4.9 below.

In the equation (G8) the ratio of dimensions "d/h" defines an extremely important construction factor, called "Krotność" and marked by the letter "K". The word "Krotność" in the Polish language means the "ratio of main dimensions" – while in Magnocraft it indicates the ratio of their diameter “d” to their height “h”, namely K = d/h. After the introduction of the "K" factor, the condition of stability can be expressed as:

         d         n
K = ─── = ─── + 1       (G9)
         h         4

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "/" means division, while the symbol "+" means addition, the condition (G9) takes the following form:

K = d/h = n/4 + 1.

If we build the Magnocraft in such a way that the "K" factor takes only integer values from the range of K = 3 to K = 10, then the number "n" of side propulsors, as well as the ratio "d/h" of the craft's dimensions, is strictly defined and constant for every different "K". For this reason, all vehicles having the same "K" are classified as belonging to the same type. In turn the name of this type is derived from the values that this factor acquires. Therefore this name of subsequent types of the Magnocraft is expressed as K3, K4, K5, K6, K7, K8, K9, or K10.

G4.4. The condition for expressing the “K” factor by the ratio of outer dimensions

The propulsors of the Magnocraft are hidden inside its shell and are usually invisible to an outside observer. Therefore it would be rather difficult to determine the value of "Krotność", as also the type of craft under observation, only by the number of its side propulsors or their positioning in relation to the main propulsor (i.e. by the "d/h" ratio). On the other hand, the type must be quickly recognizable by the crews of other vehicles and also by the technical personnel on the ground, as it defines their relationship towards the observed craft. Therefore it is necessary to introduce the additional condition that "K" is not only expressed by the ratio of inner dimensions "K = d/h" that remain invisible for the outside observer, but it must also be expressed by the ratio of outer dimensions "D/H" which everyone can easily see (for details see Img.067 (G18) and Img.069 (G20). When this additional condition is met, the crews of other vehicles, as well as the personnel on the ground, can easily determine the type of an approaching vehicle solely by determining the ratio (K=D/H) of its outer dimensions, means the ratio of maximal outer diameter “D” to the entire height “H” of the vehicle (from the floor to the top).

After the introduction of this condition, every Magnocraft must fulfil not only the equation (G9), but also the following equation:
K = ───      (G10)

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "/" means division, the equation (G10) takes the following form: K=D/H.

This equation (G10) makes the determination of the type of observed Magnocraft very simple and almost automatic. It is sufficient only to find out how many times the vehicle's apparent height "H" (base to top) is contained within the vehicle's apparent outer diameter "D". Of course, determining this ratio K=D/H is a purely routine calculation, so it can be completed automatically by the appropriate computer system linked to an identification radar. This in turn allows building simple systems and devices for automatic identification of types of observed Magnocraft. The factor "K" is able to fulfil simultaneously the equation (G9) and the equation (G10) only if the width "L" of the Magnocraft's flange is described by the equation (see Figures G18 and G5):

L = ─── · DM      (G11)
Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "/" means division, while the symbol "*" means multiplication, the condition (G11) takes the following form:

L = (K/4)*DM.

This equation (G11) together with the equation (G10) are the mathematical consequences of the necessity to express the type factor "K" by the ratio of outer dimensions of the Magnocraft.

G4.5. The condition for optimum coupling of Magnocraft into flying systems

In subsection G3.1.5. the most advanced homogenous configuration of the coupled Magnocraft is presented. It is called a “flying system” - see Img.057 (G12). The single cell of this configuration is formed from four stacked cigars, the flanges of which mesh with one another. (How such meshing is achieved for every two consecutive cigars is presented in Img.066 (G17). In order to pack into the flying system the greatest number of vehicles occupying the smallest space, the additional condition of "optimum coupling" must be involved. In accordance with this condition, all vehicles belonging to a particular cell must touch with their rims the central axis "Z" of this cell. (This hypothetical central axis “Z” is an axis of symmetry that runs vertically through the centre of such cell, and that around which all four cigars are allocated.) The geometrical configuration defined by this condition is presented in Img.065 (G16) (which illustrates such a cell from an overhead view - compare also Img.066 (G17) with Img.057 (G12).

After joining the vehicles in this way, the distance between the central axes of every two spaceships located on the opposite sides of the "Z" axis is equal to "D", whereas the distance between the axes of every two vehicles coupled together by their side propulsors is equal to "d". Using the Pythagoras theorem "D2=d2+d2", the above can be expressed as:

D = d√2       (G12)
(i.e. "D" is equal to "d" multiplied by a square root of "2").

Simultaneously both diameters "D" and "d" must also fulfil the equation (see Img.067 (G18) and Img.069 (G20):

D = d + 2L       (G13)

in which the "L" can be replaced by (G11) combined with (G10); therefore after necessary reductions the final expression for the condition discussed here takes the form:

DM = H(2 – √2)      (G14)

The equation (G14) reveals that the ratio "H/DM" (i.e. the height "H" of the vehicle to the diameter "DM" of its main propulsor) is constant for every type of Magnocraft and equal to about: H/DM = 1.7.

G4.6. The condition under which the flanges coincide

The optimum coupling of Magnocraft into flying systems also requires that the meshing of the flanges of all craft must coincide exact with one another. The principle of such coinciding of flanges is shown in Img.066 (G17). As this Figure reveals, the entire space left between two stacked vehicles is taken by the mutually coinciding flanges and complementary flanges of the meshing crafts. Because the thicknesses of the flanges are equal to "Ds", whereas the distance between the bases of two consecutive stacked vehicles is equal to "DM", the thicknesses "Gs" of the Magnocraft's complementary flanges must be expressed by the equation:

Gs =DM - Ds      (G15)
(i.e. "Gs" is equal to "DM" minus "Ds").

The fulfilment of the equations (G14) and (G15) forms the Magnocraft's shell in such a way that after these vehicles are coupled into a flying system, there is almost no space left which would not be occupied by a craft.

G4.7. Types of Magnocraft

Here is the definition for the "type of Magnocraft" that I adopted in this monograph and in other my publications. Type of Magnocraft is a name for the entire group of almost identical vehicles, which share exactly the same values of their basic design parameters, especially their: "K" factor, number “n” of side propulsors, major dimensions such as “d”, “D” and “H”, external shape, and various standardized features subjected to international (or interplanetary) agreements (e.g. the SUB system).

Therefore any group of Magnocraft belonging to the same type, is able to couple together into homogenous arrangements, independently of who produced these vehicles and when, what is their purpose, etc. All Magnocraft of the same type must also look identical from the outside, and must have the same number "n" of side propulsors. But they can be subdivided into slightly different internal rooms, may use different materials for their shells, be produced by different countries, companies, or civilisations, be made in different years, serve different purposes, and so on.

It is worth to mention here that a whole number of different series of the Magnocraft will probably be built in the future for various purposes. Already at this stage we can imagine a minimum of two such series being constructed, i.e. (1) the basic series of crew-carrying vehicles, and (2) an additional series of the computer controlled (unmanned) probes that are also based on the design of Magnocraft. In these computer-controlled miniature probes, types K3 to K5 could perform the functions of personal implements (e.g. personal weapon, couriers, spy vehicles, carriers of cameras and microphones, etc.), whereas types K6 to K10 could perform the function of automatic probes and explorers. In subsection U3.1.2. such computer controlled, unmanned flying probes of the second generation are described under the name of “rods” that currently is used for them in Internet. In each of these two series, the dimensions of particular types of vehicles must be different, but the general appearance, the number of side propulsors, and the mutual ratio of external dimensions must remain the same for all vehicles of a given type. For the series of the crew-carrying Magnocraft, the best use of space seems to occur when outer diameters "D" of the subsequent types of vehicles fulfil the equation:

D = 2K [cosmic cubits]      G16')
(i.e. "D" expressed in so-called "cosmic cubits" is equal to "2" to the power of "K").

The unit of measure from this equation is not our Earthly meter, but the cosmic universal unit of length, in this monograph called the "cosmic cubit". The conversion of this unit into our meters amounts to the value of Cc=0.5486 [metres]. If the outer diameter of "D" of the Magnocraft is expressed in our Earthly meters, then it is described by the equation:

D = Cc · 2K [metres]      (G16)
(i.e. "D" expressed in metres is equal to "Cc" multiplied by "2" to the power of "K"). Of course, instead of the conversion constant "Cc" in equation (G16) used also can be the value of this constant. Then equation (G16) takes the following shape:

D = 0.5486A2K [meters]      (G16")

The outer diameters D' of the computer controlled unmanned Magnocraft should probably be 28=256 times smaller, thus it could be expressed by another equation of the form:

D' = 2.143A2K [millimetres].

Such defining of their values would cause that the outer diameter D'K10 of the K10 type of a computer controlled Magnocraft would be equal to a half of the outer diameter DK3 of the K3 type of a crew-carrying Magnocraft, i.e.:

DK3 = 2 · D'K10.

The above demonstration of possibility of building of not only the series of the crew- carrying Magnocraft, but also additional series of miniature unmanned Magnocraft probes, convinces to be careful. This is because it warns that for the complete categorizing of a given Magnocraft being observed, there is a need to identify not only the type to which it belongs, but also the series to which this type belongs (i.e. a large crew carrying vehicle, or a miniature computer controlled unmanned vehicle). Fortunately, because the computer-controlled Magnocraft are going to be around 256 times smaller from manned Magnocraft of the same type, the distinguishing between these two series of flying vehicles should not be difficult.

I would also like to add here, that for a scientific exactitude I signalled here the fact, that in the future more than one series of Magnocraft can be build. The starting equation that describes the outer diameter "D" for vehicles of these series is going to differ. However, in the further parts of this monograph I am going to concentrate exclusively on the discussion of crew-carrying Magnocraft, the outer diameter of which is described by the above equation (G16):

D = 0.5486 · 2K [meters].

Apart from this paragraph, in the remainder of the text any reference to a computer controlled series of the Magnocraft will not be elaborated. Therefore any further reference to a type of Magnocraft will relate solely to the crew-carrying series of this vehicle.

The equation (G16) highlights the fact that the outer diameters of successive Magnocraft are organized in a binary fashion. By way of their organizing, the diameter "D" for each following type of Magnocraft is obtained by doubling the same diameter from the previous type. Because there is a linear relationship between the outer diameters "D" and some other dimensions and parameters of the Magnocraft, a number of various dimensions of these vehicles are also aligned in such a binary fashion. For example the diameters "d" of the circles of scorched vegetation left by landed Magnocraft (see Img.083 (G33) are also organized in such a way that each subsequent circle is twice as big as the circle produced by the previous type of this vehicle.

The conditions defined in earlier subsections led to the deduction of a number of mathematical equations which completely describe the geometrical shape of the shell in each type of Magnocraft. These equations are listed in Img.067 (G18). If we use the equation (G16) for defining diameter "D" of the subsequent vehicles, if we use these further equations we determine the values of all main dimensions for the crew-carrying series of Magnocraft. These dimensions are presented in Table G1.

Transforming the dimensions from Table G1 into diagrams, the outlines of all eight basic types of the Magnocraft are obtained. The final form of these outlines is presented in Img.068 (G19). This Figure reveals that each subsequent type of Magnocraft possesses a unique and very distinct shape, which in the future will help us to identify visually Magnocraft in the manner equally fast and easy, as presently experienced pilots identify the type of an aeroplane that flies by them.

G4.8. Manners of identifying the types of Magnocraft

From the fact of shaping the hulk of the Magnocraft according to design conditions described in previous subsections stems a whole array of practical consequences. One of the most important out of these, is the possibility of a fast and easy identification of a type, size, and design parameters of a vehicle that someone is just observing. This in turn opens possibilities for an immediate learning of all design parameters and performance features of a vehicle that someone is observing. Effective methods of such a fast identification of Magnocraft are illustrated in Img.069 (G20). These methods are based on several different principles. Out of these the most effective and useful are as follows: #1. Determination of the ratio of outer dimensions K=D/H. This method of a quick identification of the Magnocraft's type is well illustrated in Img.069 (G20). All that is needed is to place a piece of thread, a blade of grass, a ruler, or any other linear object towards the flying Magnocraft or on a photograph of it, and then measure its apparent "H" and "D" dimensions. Next, the value of "Krotność" coefficient "K" can immediately be established from the equation (G10) by a simple division of "D" by "H". If by this means the value of "K=D/H" is determined, it is known that the type of this vehicle is equal to this coefficient, e.g. for vehicles with K=3 the type is K3. Thus, almost all of the vehicle's parameters can later be found for this type either by reading them from Table G1, or by calculating them from equations (G9) to (G16). #2. Counting the number “n” of side propulsors. The "K" coefficient is then determined from the following equation: K=1+n/4. This equation results from transforming appropriately the explained previously equation n=4(K-1) – see equations (G2), (G6) and (G9). It is worth to add here that the so-called “black bars” (described in subsection G10.4), which appear in some configurations of coupled Magnocraft, introduce a significant assistance in counting the number "n" of side propulsors – for details see Img.078 (G28b). Also areas of ionised air that prevail on outlets from side propulsors of this vehicle may be utilised as clues as how many propulsors a given vehicle has – compare Img.069 (G20) and Img.078 (G28a).

#3. Counting the number of lamps of the “SUB” system. These lamps are assembled into the structure of each vehicle. Each one of them is a well-visible source of colourful light, that is attached to the flange of these vehicles in such a manner, that it should be noticeable from possibly the largest number of sides – for more details see descriptions from subsection G8.2. A number "SUB" of these lamps is equal to a half of the total number "n" of side propulsors in a given type of vehicle, and is expressed by the equation: SUB = n/2 = 2(K-1) lamps.

#4. Counting the number “f” of magnetic waves which circulate around the spaceship. The magnetic wave is a clearly distinguishable concentration, or a strand, of force lines of magnetic field that circulate between the main propulsor and side propulsors of a given vehicle – for more descriptions see subsection G7.2. and Img.076 (G26). For example, just on the basis of the number "f" of these magnetic waves it was possible to establish, that the vehicle shown in Img.138 (P19D) is the type K6, while vehicles from photo in Img.148 (P29) are types K5 and K3. The "K" coefficient is then determined from the following equation: K = 1+f, where f = n/4 – as this is explained in subsection G7.2.).

#5. Counting the number of crew members. In Magnocraft of all types the "K" coefficient is equal to the number of crew members, and vice versa, i.e. K = crew (see Table G1). The problem with this method is, however, that independently from the crew in some cases a given vehicle may also carry passengers or visitors, whom by an outside observer may be mistaken with crew members and thus may lead to erroneous findings. Therefore this method is yielding approximate values only.

#6. Measurement of the nominal diameter “d” of the scorched ring left on the soil during landing by side propulsors of a given spacecraft. The relationship between this diameter "d" and the coefficient "K" is expressed by the following equation: d = (0.5486/√/2)2K [meters] – see equations (G34), and also (G16) and (G12). Thus knowing "d" it is possible to either calculate the value of "K", or finding this value from columns "d" and "K" of Table G1.

#7. Identification of outlines of a given type of Magnocraft. This method depends on comparison of outlines of an observed vehicle to outlines of all types of these vehicles which are presented in Img.138 (G19). The "K" coefficient is then determined on the basis of this identification.

#8. Identification of a type of given Magnocraft by recognising the characteristic attributes of its interior. This method depends on recognising the number, mutual positioning, and destination of subsequent levels, compartments, hermetic divisions, and gates that lead through these hermetic divisions. The principle of such recognising stems from the fact, that each type of the Magnocraft has an unique utilisation of its interior. This unique utilisation of the interior results from the shape and dimensions of a given spaceship, from the design requirements – e.g. from the requirement that the hulk must accomplish the highest possible mechanical strength, from ergonomic requirements, from safety regulations, etc. Data that are required for this manner of identification are presented in subsections G2.5., while descriptions of an example of just such an identification are elaborated in subsection P6.1. and illustrated in subsections P30 and G39. The basic requirement of this manner of identification is that a person who carries out an identification, or who provides data for It, is physically present on the deck of a given vehicle and makes all necessary observations.

Let us now discuss method #1 in more details. It determines the value of the “K” factor on basis of outer dimensions “D” and “H” of the observed vehicle. For a single Magnocraft determining the value of this “K” factor is simple. We just use equation (G10). Also when two Magnocraft are coupled together into a spherical flying complex described in subsection G3.1.1., "K" factor may be calculated from the following relatively simple equation:

Kspherical = (2D)/(ΣH) (G17)

This equation (G17) is discussed in Table G2. In this equation the symbol “ΣH” means the total height of the entire spherical complex. In turn symbol “D” means the outer diameter of vehicles from this complex (thus the symbol “2D” means a double value of the outer diameter “D”).

However, the "K" determination starts to be more complicated when one of the cigar-shaped flying complexes is analyzed. In this instance the final form of the equation used depends on the value of the following ratio:
──────── = c (G18)
   H - DM

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "/" means division, while the symbol "-" means subtraction, the equation (G18) takes the following form: H/(H - DM) = c.

This ratio can be determined from the equation (G14) expressing the condition of optimum coupling into flying systems. After it is determined from this condition it takes the following value:

C = 1/(√2 – 1) (G19)

After using this value for "c" for deducing the equation describing the "K" factor in cigar-shaped flying complexes, these equations take the following form:

- for the stacked cigar-shaped complex:

                m-1        D                                            D
K = (m - -─────) · ───= (m - (m - 1) · ( 2 - 1)) · ───      (G20)
                   c         ΣH                                          ΣH

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "*" means multiplication, the symbol "/" means division, the symbol "+" means addition, the symbol "-" means subtraction, division, while the symbol "sqrt(2)" means the square roof from "2", the equation (G20) takes the following form:

K = (m - ((m - 1)/c))*(D/(ΣH)) = (m - (m - 1)*(sqrt(2) - 1))*(D/(ΣH)).

- for the double-ended cigar shaped complex:

               m-1         D                                          D
K = (m -─────) · ───= (m - (m - 2) · ( 2 - 1)) · ───        (G21)
                  c         ΣH                                        ΣH

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "*" means multiplication, the symbol "/" means division, the symbol "+" means addition, the symbol "-" means subtraction, division, while the symbol "sqrt(2)" means the square roof from "2", the equation (G20) takes the following form:

K = (m - ((m - 2)/c))*(D/(ΣH)) = (m - (m - 2)*(sqrt(2) - 1))*(D/(ΣH)).

The "m" represents the number of Magnocraft coupled together into a given flying complex, whereas "ΣH" is the height and "D" is the outer diameter of the resultant arrangement.

Note that when the number of units takes the value m = 1, the equation (G20) reduces itself into the form of equation (G10): K=D/H. Similarly equation (G21), when applying the value of m = 2, transforms itself into equation (G17): K = 2D/ΣH.

The final formulas for identifying the type of Magnocraft that form one of the flying configurations considered above are listed in Table G2.

G4.9. The magnetic framework

A vital consequence of the "stability condition" described in subsection G4.3. above, is the resistance of the Magnocraft's structure to the action of even the highest of external pressures. This resistance is called the “magnetic framework”. This subsection describes the mechanism of action of this invisible yet powerful framework.

As this is explained more comprehensively in subsection G7.2., during operation of the Magnocraft in a so-called “magnetic whirl” mode of operation, a spinning cloud of electrified plasma is formed around this vehicle. This cloud is kept at some distance from the surface of the vehicle by a number of magnetic forces that are formed by propulsors of the vehicle. Due to the existence of this cloud, any external effects directed onto the craft, are taken up by this magnetic whirl, not by the physical structure and material of the shell. In turn this whirl is supported by the "magnetic framework" described in subsection G4.3. above. Therefore the environmental pressure is not transferred into the body of the craft, but is neutralized within the magnetic field's force interactions. This makes it possible for the vehicle to withstand high pressures that otherwise would be destructive to its physical structure. Therefore the Magnocraft have the ability to penetrate even to the bottom of oceanic trenches, where any other structure would be crushed by water pressure. Also the Magnocraft should not be in danger from any nearby explosion because the shockwaves would be stopped by the magnetic framework.

The other property of the Magnocraft, called the "magnetic whirl", prevents any extremely hot medium from touching the craft's surface. This is because such a magnetic whirl forms the so-called “vacuum bubble”, which prevents all media through which the Magnocraft flies from touching the vehicle’s shell. Simultaneously, the strong magnetic field that forms the s-called "magnetic lens" (described in subsection G10.4.) bends the thermal radiation, making it impossible to illuminate the surface of the craft. Therefore, Magnocraft are able to fly through any environment consisting of melted materials. This ability, together with the magnetic framework discussed before, should allow this vehicle to penetrate the Earth's nucleus, and also perhaps the centres of stars.

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