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Let us visualize a small and perfectly shaped transparent cube which represents a new device for producing a super-powerful magnetic field. It would look like an ideally formed crystal of some transparent mineral, or like a cube cut beautifully from shiny glass and showing its content through transparent walls. With dimensions not larger than those of a handy Rubik's cube it would produce magnetic field thousands of times exceeding the power of fields so-far produced on Earth, including fields from the most powerful magnetic cranes and fields from the largest electromagnets in leading scientific laboratories. If we take this glass cube in our hands, it would demonstrate extraordinary properties. For example, in spite of its small dimensions it would be unusually "heavy" and after being switched onto its full magnetic output even the strongest athlete would not be able to lift it. Its "heaviness" would result from the fact that the magnetic field it produces would attract the cube in the direction of Earth's centre, thus a force of magnetic attraction so created would add to its real weight. The cube would also oppose our attempts to rotate it, and similarly like a magnetic needle of a compass it would always try to point into the same direction coinciding with a magnetic north- south meridian. However, if we somehow could manage to turn it into the orientation opposite to this natural alignment simulating a magnetic needle, then to our surprise it would take off and begin to lift us into space. In this way just on its own this crystal cube would be capable of propelling our space vehicles.
After this transparent chamber is examined at close range it would show countless electric sparks flickering inside. The gradual displacement of these sparks onto different trajectories would appear as if in suspended animation. Further observation would reveal that they all orderly jump in the same direction around the perimeter of the cube, "slipping" along inner surfaces of the four transparent side walls. (The remaining two frontal walls of this cubical crystal would be occupied by outlets/poles of the magnetic field which this device produces, and thus they would allow insight into the interior because they would not be crossed by any sparks.) The jump of each individual spark would occur only between two opposite walls of the cube. But because parts of the trajectories of these individual sparks would mutually overlap each other, in the final effect they would create a kind of "vortex made of sparks" which would rotate immensely fast around the magnetic axis of the device. However, this vortex would not follow circular trajectories like this is done by the majority of other rotary phenomena, but it would move along square paths. In turn the rotation of this spark-vortex around the peripheral of a square would produce a powerful magnetic field. The production of this field would not be much different from that occurring during the flow of electric current along coils of a square-shaped inductor.
The explanation above discloses the appearance and operation of the "Oscillatory Chamber", i.e. the device which is the subject of presentation in this chapter. It realizes that the name "Oscillatory Chamber" is ascribed to a completely new principle of magnetic field production, unknown previously on Earth, and invented by myself (i.e. the author of this monograph). This principle employs effects of the rotation of four-segment electrical arc around peripherals of four inner side walls of a cubical chamber. Thus arc is formed from two streams of mutually synchronized oscillations of electric sparks that jump in two mutually perpendicular directions, four subsequent jumps of which cross outlines of a square. These four jumps occur within two oscillatory circuits formed together into the shape of a cubical chamber. Because of the shape and principles employed by this chamber, it is called the “Oscillatory Chamber”.
The structure of the Oscillatory Chamber which accomplishes or implements the above principle of magnetic field production, will take the shape of a cubical chamber made of transparent materials and empty inside (i.e. filled only with a dielectric gas under a low pressure). The six walls of this chamber will be prepared from an electric insulator (e.g. a glass) which is also magnetically neutral, melted together at edges. Two couples of side walls will hold packets of conductive electrodes. These four packets of electrodes, joined to the inner surfaces of four side walls of the chamber, perform alone the function of two cooperating oscillatory circuits with a spark gap. Each one of these two circuits is created by a different couple (i.e. two separate packets) of electrodes attached to two opposite inner walls of this cubical chamber (i.e. the surface of opposite electrodes supplies the required electrical capacitance to the circuit, the mutual distance of electrodes is to perform the function of a spark gap, while the spark itself is to supply the required electrical inductance to the circuit).
The operation of the Oscillatory Chamber summarized briefly will be as follows. The packets of electrodes located on the walls of the chamber are charged with the opposite electric charges. These charges try to neutralize each other, thus they form electric sparks that oscillate between opposite electrodes. Because the four subsequent sparks are forced to jump at appropriately synchronized moments, they form a kind of square electric arc, which circulates around the inner perimeter of the cubical chamber. Thus, the appropriate synchronisation of the oscillatory discharges occurring in such two circuits with crossing sparks, allows for the production of a dipolar magnetic field. The above principle applied in the Oscillatory Chamber allows gaining double benefits. On one hand it eliminates almost all drawbacks inherited in the principles of today's electromagnets, which so-far limited the magnetic output of electromagnets. On the other hand it also provide the Oscillatory Chamber with a variety of unique operational advantages which are the source of unique attributes of this device (i.e. attributes that are unknown in any other device build so-far on Earth).
The complete elimination of drawbacks inherent in the electromagnets is ensured by the following attributes of the Oscillatory Chamber:
1. The neutralization of electromagnetic forces acting on the structure of the chamber.
2. Leaving to the user's choice the time and amount of energy supply (i.e. each portion of energy, whatever its amount and whenever it is delivered, is collected, stored, converted into a magnetic field and released when necessary).
3. The recovery and conversion back into electricity of all the energy dissipated by sparks.
4. The channelling of the destructive consequences of the accumulation of huge electric charges into the direction which reinforces the chamber's proper operation.
5. The independence of the power of control devices from the power involved in field production (i.e. a weak control signal will cause a change in the enormously powerful field produced by the chamber).
The Oscillatory Chamber displays also the following unique advantages unknown in any other appliance built by man to date:
A. The ability to absorb and store theoretically unlimited amounts of energy.
B. Full control over all properties and parameters of the field produced, achieved without any change in the level of energy contained in it.
C. Producing the kind of magnetic field which does not attract, nor repel, ferromagnetic objects (i.e. which behaves like a kind of "antigravity field", not a magnetic one).
D. Multidimensional transformation of energy (e.g. electricity - magnetic field - heat) which allow the Oscillatory Chamber to take over the function of almost every other conventional energy-converting device (e.g. electromagnets, transformers, generators, accumulators, cells, combustion engines, heaters, air conditioners, and many more).
As the final result of such a formation of the Oscillatory Chamber, this device, when completed, will be able to raise the value of a produced magnetic flux to a level unlimited by theoretical premises. Practically it also means that this source of field will be the first one able to lift itself as the effect of a repulsive interaction with the environmental magnetic field (i.e. the field of Earth, Sun, or Galaxy). Thus the Oscillatory Chamber become our "arkway to the stars".
F1. Why there is a necessity to replace the electromagnet by the Oscillatory Chamber
When we observe the blinding achievements in one discipline, without a delay we assume that our progress is equally spectacular in all directions. However, if we examine the matter closely, we may discover the areas where almost no progress has been achieved in the last two centuries, and where we are still treading in the same place. In order us to realize one of the most frequently encountered areas of such a inventive stagnation, let us ask now the following question: "What progress has been achieved recently in the area of principles of the controlled magnetic field production?". To our surprise the answer is "none". At the beginning of the Mars exploration era we still use exactly the same principle of the magnetic field production as that one which was used over 170 years ago, i.e. the principle discovered in 1820 by the Danish professor, Hans Oersted, and depending on the application of the magnetic effects created by an electric current flowing through the coils of a conductor. The device utilizing this principle, called an "electromagnet", is now one of the most archaic inventions still in common use because of the lack of a more suitable solution.
We can realize how outdated its operation is from the following example: if the progress in propulsion systems were equal to that of magnetic field production devices, our only mechanical vehicle would still be a steam engine.
Electromagnets possess a whole range of inherent drawbacks, which make it impossible to raise their output above a particular - and not very high - level. These disadvantages can in no way be eliminated, because they result from the principle of operation of these devices alone. Below the most significant of these inherited and thus totally unremovable drawbacks of electromagnets are listed. Their explanation with more details will be provided in subsection F6 which presents the way in which each of these drawbacks is eliminated in the operation of the Oscillatory Chamber.
#1. Electromagnets create deflecting forces which tense their coils in the radial direction trying to tear these coils apart. These forces are produced as the result of mutual interaction between the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet, and the same coils of the conductor which created this field. The field tries to push these coils out from its own range (according to the action of the "left-hand rule" often called the "motor effect"). Thus the deflecting forces so formed in coils are of a type identical to the ones utilized in the operation of electric motors. In order to prevent the electromagnet from being torn apart, these electromagnetic containment forces must ultimately be opposed by some form of physical structure. The mechanical strength of this structure counter-balances the deflecting forces resulting from the output of a given electromagnet. Of course this structure significantly increases the weight of any really powerful steady-field magnet. Furthermore, when the current's flow in electromagnets exceeds a certain level, the deflecting forces grow to such an extent that they are not able to be balanced further by the mechanical strength of the structure. Thus, the gradual increase in output of electromagnets eventually causes coils to explode. In this way too high an increase in the output of electromagnets results in their self-destruction via an explosion. Such explosions of electromagnets are quite frequent occurrences in scientific laboratories, therefore the most powerful electromagnets must be placed in special bunkers which confine their possible explosions.
#2. Electromagnets require the continuous supply of electric energy if they are to produce a magnetic field whose all parameters are controllable (i.e. a field whose parameters can be changed in accordance with the application requirements). If continuous energy supply is cut off, the control over the electromagnet's field finishes. This requirement of controllability causes that during the production of powerful magnetic fields, a single electromagnet consumes the output from a whole electricity plant.
#3. Electromagnets cause significant energy losses. The electric current flowing through coils of a conventional electromagnet releases a vast amount of heat (see Joule's law of electric heating). This heat not only decreases the energetic efficiency of the magnetic field production, but also, when the energies involved are high, it leads to a melting of the coils.
The superconductive electromagnet removes the heating from a current flowing through resistance. However, it introduces another loss of energy resulting from the necessity to maintain a very low temperature of the coils. This also causes a permanent consumption of energy which decreases the efficiency of such a magnet. Moreover, it should be noted here that the high density of magnetic fields cancels the effect of superconductivity and thereby restores a resistance to the coils. Thus the superconductive electromagnets are only capable to produce magnetic fields the density of which is lower than the threshold value causing the return of electric resistivity to their coils.
#4. Electromagnets are prone to electric wear-out. The geometrical configuration of electromagnets is formed in such a way that the direction of the greatest electric field strength does not coincide with the path of the conductor through the coil (i.e. forces of this field try to short-cut the flow of current across coils, whereas the layer of insulation channel the current to flow through the coils and along a spiral). This directs the destructive action of electric energy into the insulation, causing its eventual damage (short-circuit followed by the electric breakdown) which initiates the destruction of the entire device.
#5. Electromagnets have a limited controllability, e.g. can not be controlled by weak signals. The parameters of their magnetic field can be controlled only through the changes in the power of the electrical energy supply. Therefore controlling the electromagnets requires the same powers as those powers involved in the production of a magnetic field.
The only way to eliminate the five disadvantages listed above is to apply a completely different principle of magnetic field production. Such a principle, invented by myself ((the author), will be presented in later sections of this chapter. Because this new principle utilizes the mechanism of oscillatory discharges occurring inside a cubical chamber, it is called an "Oscillatory Chamber".
The principle of the Oscillatory Chamber avoids the limitations which prevent an increase of output in electromagnets (the way it is achieved is presented in subsection F6.). Also, it promises a more effective and convenient preparation and exploitation, long life without the necessity of maintenance, a very high field-to-weight ratio, and a wide range of applications (e.g. as an energy storage, propulsion device, source of magnetic fields, etc. - see Table F1). The explanations that follow (especially the one from subsection F7) will describe the mechanisms for achieving all these additional advantages. Therefore, the lack in the Oscillatory Chamber of inherited drawbacks of electromagnets, combined with these numerous additional operational advantages, make highly desirable to promote the fast development of this device, so that in the not-too-distant future it may replace electromagnets presently in use.