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Copyright Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

Chapter F: The Oscillatory Chamber

F6. How the Oscillatory Chamber eliminates the drawbacks of electromagnets

The operation of the Oscillatory Chamber is formed in such a way that all drawbacks significant for electromagnets are completely avoided in this device. The descriptions that follow present the principle of elimination for each inherent disadvantage of electromagnets listed and briefly discussed in items #1 to #5 of subsection F1.

F6.1. Mutual neutralization of the two opposite electromagnetic forces

One of the most significant drawbacks of electromagnets is the deflecting force formed in their coils (which was already described in item #1 of subsection F1). In the final effect this force leads to the explosion of electromagnets if they exceed a certain (and not very high) threshold value. In the Oscillatory Chamber this dangerous force is completely neutralized. This is because the unique operation of the Oscillatory Chamber leads to the formation of two reciprocally counter-acting forces: (1) the Coulomb's attraction force, and (2) the electromagnetic deflecting force (i.e. the same one which tended to explode electromagnets).

Both these forces, acting one against the other, mutually neutralize themselves. This subsection is to explain the principles on which this mutual neutralization of forces is achieved.
The Coulomb forces are created in the effect of mutual attraction of opposite electric charges, which are accumulated on the facing walls of the chamber. They cause the formation of electrostatic forces that compress this device inwards, trying to squash it. In turn the electromagnetic containment forces are created by the interaction of the magnetic field and the sparks. They cause the tension of the Oscillatory Chamber outwards. Therefore it is possible to select the design and operational parameters of this device, so that both kinds of forces mentioned above will mutually neutralize each other. As the final result, the physical structure of the chamber is liberated from the obligation to oppose any of these two forces.

Img.015 (F4) presents the mechanism of reciprocal compensation of these two interactions described above. For simplicity, all the courses of phenomena within the chamber are shown as linear, independently of how they occur in reality. But it should be noticed that these phenomena are symmetrical. It means that, for example, if the current in the sparks changes in a particular way, the potentials on the plates must also change in exactly the same way. Therefore the variation in time of the forces analyzed here will display some kind of an inherent regulation mechanism, in which the course (not the quantity) of the first phenomenon always follows the course of the other phenomenon opposite to this first one. In this way, independently what is the real variation in time of the force interactions described here, the principle of mutual neutralization explained here on the example of linear course will also be valid for all other variations which may occur in reality.

Part (a) of Img.015 (F4) shows the four basic phases forming the full cycle of the chamber's operation. The description of these phases is already provided in subsection F3.3. of this chapter. Significant for each phase is that two streams of sparks co-exist, the first of which (in the Img.015 (F4a) indicated by the continuous line) transmits energy from the electric field into the magnetic field (active sparks). The second stream (in the diagram indicated by a broken line) in this instant consumes the magnetic field to produce the electric field (inertial sparks).

Part (b) of Img.015 (F4b) illustrates the relevant changes of electric charges "q" on the R (right), L (left), F (front) and B (back) plates of the chamber, occurring during each phase of the device's operation. These charges create the Coulomb's forces that attract the facing plates inwards. In this part of the diagram it is visible that, when one pair of plates reaches the maximum of its potentials differences - initiating a discharge between them, the other pair is just in its equilibrium of potentials. Then simultaneously with the growth of the discharge current flowing between this first pair of plates, the opposite charges on the other pair of plates also grow. Thus the containment forces that tense the chamber outwards are growing accordingly with the value of the discharge current. On the other hand the Coulomb's force of the reciprocal attraction of these other facing plates is growing as well, together with the quantity of opposite electric charges accumulated on them. So as the result both counter- acting kinds of forces are growing at the same pace.

Part (c) of Img.015 (F4c) shows the changes in the electromagnetic containment forces M=i·a·B, trying to push out the particular sparks from the field's range. Because these forces are proportional to the product of the sparks' current "i" and the magnetic flux density B, where B=F/(a·a), the maximum of the chamber's tension will occur at the instant of time when the discharging plates reach the equilibrium of their potentials. At this same instant of time the other pair of plates, along which the discharge occurs, reaches the maximum of potentials difference (compare with part (b) of this diagram) as well as the maximum force of their reciprocal compression. Thus in the maximums both kinds of forces also mutually compensate each other. In part (d) of Img.015 (F4d) the mechanism of mutual compensation of the forces described above is shown. The upper side of this diagram presents the changes in the tension forces "T" which try to pull the Oscillatory Chamber apart. These forces are caused by the interaction of the magnetic field and the current from the sparks (compare with part (c) of this Figure). The lower side of diagram (d) presents the changes in the compression forces "C". This compression is caused by the mutual Coulomb's attraction occurring between the facing plates which accumulate the opposite electric charges "q" (compare with part (b) of Img.015 (F4b). Note that whenever a tension force appears (e.g. from the sparks SB-F), there is always also formed a counteracting compression force (e.g. from the Coulomb's attraction of charges qR-L). Both of them act in opposite directions, and follow the same course of changes in time. Therefore both neutralize each other. It is natural that the compensation of forces, displaying inherence in their course as described above, still requires values to match. Therefore further experimental research will be necessary, to select such design and exploitation parameters of the Oscillatory Chamber that will provide the full equilibrium for the counteracting forces. As a result of this research, a device can be completed in which the production of a magnetic field will not be limited by the action of any kinds of forces. Thus the field produced by this device can be increased to an unlimited value, even many times higher than the value of the "starting flux".

F6.2. Independence of the magnetic field production from the continuity and efficiency of the energy supply

One of the most basic attributes of the oscillating systems is their capability for the discrete absorption of the energy supplied, which is then bound into a continuous process of oscillations. An example of this is a child on a swing, which, once pushed, then swings a long time without any further work. Practically it means that energy once supplied to the Oscillatory Chamber will be tied up within it for a period of time until circumstances occur which will cause its withdrawal. As will be explained in subsection F6.3.1. of this chapter, such withdrawal can appear only when the chamber is involved in performing some kind of external work.

The other attribute of the oscillating systems is their ability to change the level of energy accumulated in them by periodic totalling of further portions of energy to the resources already stored. In the previous example of a swing, to cause the slanting of a child at a particular height, it is not necessary to apply all effort at once. It is sufficient to keep pushing gently over a longer timespan to periodically maintain this addition of energy. The consequence of this attribute will be that the Oscillatory Chamber will not require the supply of its full reserve of energy at once. The energy supply to this device can be gradual, spread over a very long period of time.

Together both of these attributes give us a practical chance to supply any quantity of energy that may be required for the production of a magnetic field, without introducing any requirements or limitations concerning the source and the channel which provide this supply.

To help us realize the advantage of the above method of supplying energy to the Oscillatory Chamber over the one used in electromagnets, we should consider the following example. A child on a swing and an athlete both try to lift a heavy load to a specific height. The child does it almost without effort by accumulating the energy during consecutive oscillations, whereas the athlete needs to use all his/her strength and still may not achieve his/her aim.

F6.3. Elimination of energy loss

Sparks are well-known for their inherent dissipation of energy. There is no doubt that such an intensive circulation of sparks, like the one appearing within the Oscillatory Chamber, must convert an enormous amount of electrical energy into heat. In an ordinary device such a conversion would become a source of significant energy loss. But in the chamber unique conditions appear which make possible the reversed conversion of heat directly into electricity. This conversion allows for recovery back into the opposite electric charges of all the energy previously dissipated into the heat produced by the sparks. So within the chamber two opposite processes will simultaneously occur: (1) the energy dissipation in (and around) the sparks, manifesting itself as the conversion of electrical energy into heat, and (2) the energy recovery by the direct conversion of heat back into electrical energy. Both these processes will mutually neutralize each other's effects. Therefore no matter how high the energy dissipation by the sparks themselves, the Oscillatory Chamber as a whole will fully eliminate their energy loss. As the result of such an elimination, all energy provided to this device will be preserved within it forever, unless some kind of external work is done which will cause its retrieval.

In the Oscillatory Chamber three elements co-exist, which in the same configuration were not present in any other device. These are: (1) the magnetic field force lines of which are accelerated and decelerated by sparks' motion, (2) electrodes whose charges fluctuate, and (3) a dielectric gas which is highly ionized by the discharges and caused to rotate by the circulating streams of sparks. Furthermore, during the operation of the device these three elements assume states which are required for the "Telekinetic Effect" to occur. For this reason the Oscillatory Chamber provides all the conditions required to employ the Telekinetic Effect for the direct conversion of heat (produced by sparks) into electricity.

Principles involved in the telekinetic method of heat conversion into electricity are explained in chapter K, whereas the description of devices already working which employ such a conversion is provided in a separate monograph [6]. In this method heat is converted directly into electricity through the application of telekinetic motion. Chapter H (and subsection H1) of this monograph describe the Concept of Dipolar Gravity which explains the difference between the physical and telekinetic motion. According to this concept, the telekinetic motion is caused not by the action of a force, but by the action of the so-called "Telekinetic Effect". The action of this effect can be released technologically through the acceleration and deceleration of magnetic fields. As the Telekinetic Effect represents a reversal of friction, i.e. it spontaneously absorbs environmental heat and produces motion (friction spontaneously converts mechanical motion into heat), it is capable of converting the heat induced motion of gas particles into electric potentials difference.

Principles involved in the direct conversion of thermal energy produced in the chamber back into electricity via the Telekinetic Effect are explained in subsection F3. However, for the consistency of presentation they will be briefly summarised also here. The Telekinetic Effect allows for the controlled release of two mutually opposite thermal phenomena which, amongst others, cause the emission of the so-called "extraction glow" and "dispersion glow". During the release of the first of these two phenomena the thermal energy from the environment can be directly transformed into motion, whereas during the second one - motion can be directly transformed into the thermal energy. The direction and intensity of these "heat/motion" transformations depends on the direction and value of the vector of momentary accelerations or decelerations of magnetic field force lines which pass through the volume of the chamber (or more precisely from the mutual proportions and orientation of this vector in relation to the momentary vectors of motion of electric charges in the chamber). Thus by appropriate selection of the curvature of momentary pulsations of the field, the temperature of the chamber can be maintained on a constant, unchangeable, and controllable level - see the descriptions from subsection F3. The principle of this maintenance depends on such a control of the curvature of momentary field changes in the chamber that the individual half-pulses of this field would release the Telekinetic Effect required. In turn this Effect would cause the appropriate acceleration of the electric charges rotating in the chamber, thus consuming the thermal energy. In this manner the entire heat from sparks' energy losses would be converted back into the rotation of electric charges of these sparks. As the final result the Telekinetic Effect would transform the heat produced by the sparks into motion of electric charges of these sparks, thus maintaining the temperature of the chamber on a constant and defined in advance level.

The author is aware that his statements concerning the recovery of heat dissipated by electric sparks may be accepted reluctantly by people so-far unfamiliar with the action of the Telekinetic Effect. For this reason, in the subsection that follows he will present arguments indicating that even without the knowledge of the Telekinetic Effect, present science in special circumstances recognizes the possibility of the direct conversion of all heat into electricity. In order to support these arguments with some empirical findings, the author would like to also indicate here that according to the content of chapter S the idea of the Oscillatory Chamber is already implemented in a technical manner. The observers of the already operational models of this device never reported that it displays overheating or even a slight warming up. This in turn means that the direct conversion of all heat into electricity discussed here is in fact achievable.

F6.3.1. Premises for the recovery of all heat dissipated by sparks

One of the stereotyped opinions which prevail among scientists is that the conversion of thermal energy into any other form of energy must always obey the Carnot principle of thermodynamical efficiency. The adherents of this view automatically carry it over to the Oscillatory Chamber without considering the unique conditions occurring within it, whereas any mechanical application of the laws of thermodynamics to the Oscillatory Chamber is a gross over-simplification, overlooking the following factors of extreme importance:

1. The so-called "laws" of thermodynamics are in fact not laws, but statistical predictions of the total cause of numerous chaotic events.

2. The behaviour of gas particles in the presence of a strong magnetic field displays order, not chaos. Therefore the course of the energy conversion within the Oscillatory Chamber can not be described by the laws of thermodynamics.

3. Even without considering the future ways of direct conversion of heat into electricity, such as the application of telekinetic motion, at our present level of knowledge such perfectly efficient methods are already known. For example, the principle of the magneto-hydro-dynamic energy conversion assures perfect efficiency in thermal energy recovery. Therefore, if such conversion is deprived of the thermodynamic (chaotic) factor, as this will be the case in the Oscillatory Chamber, such a perfect recovery can be obtained.

Because these three factors are vital to the Oscillatory Chamber, and they don't seem to be realized by some readers, let me explain their meaning more precisely.

Refer 1.
The statistical character of the laws of thermodynamics has been acknowledged for quite a long time. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), the author of the famous equations of electromagnetism, presented proof based on the action of the so-called "Maxwell's demon", which demonstrated that the validity of these laws may be abolished in some exceptional situations. Quoted below is what B.M. Stableford writes about the second of these laws in his book [1F6.3.1] "The Mysteries of Modern Science" (London 1977, ISBN 0-7100-8697-0, page 18):

"The law of thermodynamics was shown to be the result of the statistical aggregation of a large number of events rather than an inviolable principle ruling the world with an iron hand. ... we can begin to see that although the law of thermodynamics always works out in practice, it could, in fact, be subverted by an extremely unlikely combination of chance happenings - it is not a law so much as a statistical prediction."

Refer 2.
It is a well-known phenomenon that a strong magnetic field stops the chaotic behaviour of the particles of a gas (fluid) and arranges them into an ordered pattern. This phenomenon is the basis for operation of some computer memories, and it is also applied to so-called "magnetic cooling" - see the book [2F6.3.1] by J.L. Threlkeld, "Thermal Environmental Engineering" (Prentice-Hall, Inc., N.J. 1962, page 152). Therefore a magnetic field itself carries the capability of performing the function of "Maxwell's demon", able to abolish the validity of the laws of thermodynamics. So it is justified to expect that, in the presence of such a field, energy conversion will not obey the Carnot principle.

Refer 3.
The principle of magneto-hydro-dynamic energy conversion contains the potential for perfect energy recovery. This potential is very well expressed in the following quotation taken from the book [3F6.3.1] by J.P. Holman "Thermodynamics" (McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1980, ISBN 0-07-029625-1, page 700):

"From an energy point of view, the movement of force through a displacement (mechanical work) is converted to electrical work (current flow against potential difference) by means of the electromagnetic induction principle. This is a work-work energy conversion and is not limited by the Carnot principle."

The unique conditions occurring within the Oscillatory Chamber eliminate the thermodynamical (chaotic) factor which reduces the efficiency of this process in ordinary circumstances, and allows the energy conversion to achieve perfect efficiency.
The deduction presented above shows that there are quite realistic and well-based premises signalling the possibility of a complete recovery of the energy loss within the Oscillatory Chamber. All that is needed now is that we do not close our minds to such a possibility, but implement it practically in this device.

The elimination of loss of energy is not the only advantage of the direct conversion of heat into electricity which may be achieved within the Oscillatory Chamber. This conversion also introduces an easy method for maintaining the energy supply to the device. To increase the energy resources contained within the Oscillatory Chamber the additional heating of its dielectric gas will alone be sufficient. This heating can be obtained, for example, by the circulation of the dielectric gas through a heat exchanger, or by concentrating a beam of sunlight on it.

Combining the lack of energy loss with the independence of the magnetic field production from the continuity of energy supply (compare with subsection F6.2 of this chapter), provides the Oscillatory Chamber with the property at present characteristic only for permanent magnets. The magnetic field, once created in this device, will maintain itself through the centuries, if the external consumption of energy does not occur. Of course, because of the lack of internal energy losses, the operation of this device alone will not be capable of causing any decrease in its energy resources.

F6.4. Releasing the structure of the chamber from the destructive action of electric potentials

The distinctive property of the Oscillatory Chamber is that it accumulates on facing plates electric charges of equal value but opposite sign (i.e. the same number of negatives as positives). Under such circumstances the force lines of an electric field from facing plates will mutually bind themselves together. This causes the charges to display a tendency to jump along the shortest trajectories joining these electrodes. Therefore in the chamber the tendency for a natural flow of electric charges will coincide with the trajectories required for the operation of this device. As a result, the material of the chamber's casing is freed from the action of the electric charges, whereas all the power of the device's energy is directed towards the production of a magnetic field (contrary to electromagnets where the electric potentials are mainly directed at the destruction of insulative materials these devices were made of).

In the channelling of the electric energy flow described above, the Oscillatory Chamber is entirely different from electromagnets. In the chamber this channelling is achieved by employing natural mechanisms of electrostatic attraction. In electromagnets it was forced artificially by the appropriate formation of the insulator's layers, which pushed the current to flow along the coils, whereas the action of the electric field's force lines was trying to push it across the coils and through the insulation. Therefore there is reason to expect that the Oscillatory Chambers will possess a life incomparably longer than that of electromagnets, and that their lifespan will not be limited by an electrical wear-out.

How destructive such an electrical wear-out of insulation is we may learn by analysing the lifespan of coils working under high voltages. A well-known example is the ignition coil in cars, which usually breaks down after about 7 years of usage, while still displaying no sign of mechanical defect. In low voltage electromagnets this process is slower, and therefore may not be noticed by users. But it will appear eventually.

F6.5. Amplifying control of the period of field pulsation

The Oscillatory Chamber will manifest a very high controllability. As in more details this will be explained in subsection F7.1., the key to controlling the entire chamber's operation is the period "T" pulsations of its output. Through changing this period also all other parameters of the chamber's operation can be altered. Practically the whole activity of controlling the Oscillatory Chamber will be reduced to influencing the value of period "T" of the chamber's field pulsations.

The final equation (F7) already discussed in subsection F5.6 shows how easily the value of "T" can be controlled in the Oscillatory Chamber. At the exploitation stage it is sufficient to limit the entire controlling activities to the change of the "s" factor. By changing the pressure of the gas filling the chamber, or by altering its composition, the "s" factor is influenced. The change in "s" factor in turn introduces the changes in period "T" of the field's pulsations.

To illustrate the essence of the above principle of the chamber's output control, we would need to imagine a hypothetical electromagnet in which all configuration parameters, i.e. the resistivity of wire, the number of coils, and also the geometrical make-up of a conductor, could easily be changed during its operation. Only such an imaginary electromagnet would allow for the output control in a manner used by the Oscillatory Chamber, i.e. through the appropriate manipulation of its configuration parameters, and without the necessity of controlling the power of a current supplied to it. Of course, in reality such an electromagnet is impossible to build. This in turn realizes how much better is the principle employed in controlling the Oscillatory Chamber in comparison to that employed in controlling electromagnets.

The above illustration shows that the chamber uses a very different (and much more convenient) control of oscillations than the one used in real electromagnets. In the Oscillatory Chamber the changes of the dielectric gas constants: Ω, μ and ε - causing the change of "s", are not dependent on the necessity to manipulate the amounts of energy contained in the electric and magnetic fields. Therefore in this device all controlling activities no longer involve wrestling with the power contained inside the chamber. As a result, the power of the control devices is independent from the power of the produced field (i.e. weak control devices can effectively alter the parameters of a powerful field). But in electromagnets every change in a magnetic field requires manipulations to be conducted on highly energetic currents. Thus control of electromagnets involves the same powers as that required for the field production.

Of course, every method of control introduces its own disadvantages. This is also the case in the tuning system described above. We already may predict here some limitations in the range of control - caused by critical damping, and the influence on the intensity of heat generation - caused by changes in the resistivity of gas. But these disadvantages can be overcome technically, and they are insignificant when compared with the advantage of making the power of a controlling device independent from the power of the controlled energy flows.

F7.

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