© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

G7.2. Creation of a magnetic whirl

The magnetic whirl is formed from the waves of a magnetic field which circulate around the Magnocraft. These magnetic waves are produced in a way very similar to waves on the surface of the sea, i.e. through the appropriate sequencing of rises and falls of the outputs from the vehicle's side propulsors. To achieve such rises and falls of these outputs, the pulsations of the magnetic field produced by subsequent side propulsors are appropriately shifted in phase. Below is explained the mechanism involved in such phase shifting and sequencing of outputs from the Magnocraft's side propulsors to produce a magnetic whirl.

The principle of magnetic whirl production is illustrated in Figure G26. As this Figure shows, the Magnocraft's side propulsors are arranged in repeated sets of four units, each labelled with the letters U, V, W and X. The main propulsor is labelled M - see b) and c) in Figure G26 showing two overhead views of the Magnocraft. Each section of the vehicle's

flange which contains one set of four subsequent side propulsors (marked U, V, W and X) is called a "sector". There is (K-1) sectors in each vehicle. The K3 type of Magnocraft, which possesses eight side propulsors, has two such sectors. Each successive type of craft has one sector more than the preceding type. For example, the K4 type has three sectors and the K6 type has five sectors (see Figure G24).

In each sector the same letter (e.g. U or V) labels a propulsor that is to pulsate with a given phase shift – e.g. φ = 0° or φ = 90°. Simultaneously all propulsors of the Magnocraft that are labelled with the same letter (e.g. V) must also pulsate with exactly the same phase shift (i.e. in harmony with one another so that their phase shift is the same e.g. φ = 90°). For this reason all side propulsors marked with the same letter are called a "group". Thus in the Magnocraft there is a "U group", a "V group", a "W group" and an "X group" of side propulsors. The number of propulsors in each group is equal to (K-1), i.e. to the number of sectors in the vehicle.

Propulsors of the same group pulsate in synchronization towards each other - see (a) in Figure G26. But between the output of the propulsors that belong to different groups there is a cumulative phase shift of one quarter of a period (1/4T), or 90° for a cyclic function. Note that to fulfil the condition explained in subsection G4.2, means to not allow energy to flow between subsequent propulsors, the phase shift must have exactly the value of (1/4T) or 90° and can not be even slightly larger or smaller. As a result of this phase shift, each group of side propulsors has a magnetic flux (F) of a different value at a particular moment of time (t). The variation (change) of this value in time is reflected by the course of appropriate sinusoids illustrated in part (a) of Figure G26.

As an example, let us analyze the distribution of the magnetic flux around the Magnocraft at a moment of time t = 1/4T. This distribution is illustrated in part b) of Figure G26 which shows the Magnocraft type K3 from an overhead view (letters M, and U, V, W, X label the main and side propulsors of this vehicle). At this specific time the value of the magnetic flux in the "U" propulsor of any sector is decreasing, "V" is at its maximum value, "W" is increasing, and "X" is at its minimum value. The field from the "U" propulsor in the next sector is likewise decreasing, and so on. The effect of these outputs so sequenced is to produce two magnetic waves around the Magnocraft. For Magnocraft of other types, the number "f" of magnetic waves is described by the following equation:

f = n/4 = (K-1) (G33’)

in which "n" is the number of side propulsors. These waves are moving all the time, similarly like waves move along the surface of water. Their movement can be realized by observing the change of the waves' position after a further quarter of a period of field pulsation (i.e. from t = 1/4T to t = 1/2T) which is illustrated in part c) of Figure G26. At a moment of time t = 1/2T the "W" propulsors are now at their maximum value, and the other propulsors are similarly progressed. To measure the movement of the waves, the factor (A) which represents the angular position of the maximum of a first wave is introduced. It illustrates that with the elapse of time, the angular position (A) of the waves is also progressed in accordance with the field pulsation. After the time t=1/2T the waves completely circulate around the K3 vehicle. In such a way, the high frequency rotation of these waves produces the required magnetic whirl. The period TW of the waves' rotation is described by the following equation:

TW = (K-1)T = 0.25nT (G33)

This period is a function of the total number (n) of side propulsors and the period (T) of pulsation of the magnetic field generated by these propulsors (the value of T is expressed by equation F7).

The amplitude of the waves circulating around the Magnocraft (so also the power of the whirl) is controlled by adjusting the amplitude of the field's pulsations within the side propulsors. But the amplitudinal waves formed from the outputs of the side propulsors affect the force lines of the main magnetic circuit shown in Figure G24. The part of the field produced by the main propulsor, which previously was connected to the side propulsors which decrease their output, must jump and connect to the next side propulsors whose outputs are increasing. In this manner, the circulation of the amplitude waves activates the changes in the paths of the magnetic circuits by pushing them to join the next propulsors, and in this way causing the force lines of these circuits to rotate also. Thus the sequent pulsations of the outputs from the side propulsors produce a magnetic whirl which manifests itself as the whirling of the Magnocraft's force lines around the vehicle's central axis.

Notice that the whirl is produced for any synchronized time-varying output of the side propulsors and not just for the sinusoidal variation, shown for convenience in Figure G26. As was explained in subsection F7.1, the Magnocraft's propulsors in reality produce a field with a variation which follows a kind of "beat-type" curve, roughly represented by FR in Figure F7.

=> G7.3.

G7.2. Creation of a magnetic whirl

The magnetic whirl is formed from the waves of a magnetic field which circulate around the Magnocraft. These magnetic waves are produced in a way very similar to waves on the surface of the sea, i.e. through the appropriate sequencing of rises and falls of the outputs from the vehicle's side propulsors. To achieve such rises and falls of these outputs, the pulsations of the magnetic field produced by subsequent side propulsors are appropriately shifted in phase. Below is explained the mechanism involved in such phase shifting and sequencing of outputs from the Magnocraft's side propulsors to produce a magnetic whirl.

The principle of magnetic whirl production is illustrated in Figure G26. As this Figure shows, the Magnocraft's side propulsors are arranged in repeated sets of four units, each labelled with the letters U, V, W and X. The main propulsor is labelled M - see b) and c) in Figure G26 showing two overhead views of the Magnocraft. Each section of the vehicle's

flange which contains one set of four subsequent side propulsors (marked U, V, W and X) is called a "sector". There is (K-1) sectors in each vehicle. The K3 type of Magnocraft, which possesses eight side propulsors, has two such sectors. Each successive type of craft has one sector more than the preceding type. For example, the K4 type has three sectors and the K6 type has five sectors (see Figure G24).

In each sector the same letter (e.g. U or V) labels a propulsor that is to pulsate with a given phase shift – e.g. φ = 0° or φ = 90°. Simultaneously all propulsors of the Magnocraft that are labelled with the same letter (e.g. V) must also pulsate with exactly the same phase shift (i.e. in harmony with one another so that their phase shift is the same e.g. φ = 90°). For this reason all side propulsors marked with the same letter are called a "group". Thus in the Magnocraft there is a "U group", a "V group", a "W group" and an "X group" of side propulsors. The number of propulsors in each group is equal to (K-1), i.e. to the number of sectors in the vehicle.

Propulsors of the same group pulsate in synchronization towards each other - see (a) in Figure G26. But between the output of the propulsors that belong to different groups there is a cumulative phase shift of one quarter of a period (1/4T), or 90° for a cyclic function. Note that to fulfil the condition explained in subsection G4.2, means to not allow energy to flow between subsequent propulsors, the phase shift must have exactly the value of (1/4T) or 90° and can not be even slightly larger or smaller. As a result of this phase shift, each group of side propulsors has a magnetic flux (F) of a different value at a particular moment of time (t). The variation (change) of this value in time is reflected by the course of appropriate sinusoids illustrated in part (a) of Figure G26.

As an example, let us analyze the distribution of the magnetic flux around the Magnocraft at a moment of time t = 1/4T. This distribution is illustrated in part b) of Figure G26 which shows the Magnocraft type K3 from an overhead view (letters M, and U, V, W, X label the main and side propulsors of this vehicle). At this specific time the value of the magnetic flux in the "U" propulsor of any sector is decreasing, "V" is at its maximum value, "W" is increasing, and "X" is at its minimum value. The field from the "U" propulsor in the next sector is likewise decreasing, and so on. The effect of these outputs so sequenced is to produce two magnetic waves around the Magnocraft. For Magnocraft of other types, the number "f" of magnetic waves is described by the following equation:

f = n/4 = (K-1) (G33’)

in which "n" is the number of side propulsors. These waves are moving all the time, similarly like waves move along the surface of water. Their movement can be realized by observing the change of the waves' position after a further quarter of a period of field pulsation (i.e. from t = 1/4T to t = 1/2T) which is illustrated in part c) of Figure G26. At a moment of time t = 1/2T the "W" propulsors are now at their maximum value, and the other propulsors are similarly progressed. To measure the movement of the waves, the factor (A) which represents the angular position of the maximum of a first wave is introduced. It illustrates that with the elapse of time, the angular position (A) of the waves is also progressed in accordance with the field pulsation. After the time t=1/2T the waves completely circulate around the K3 vehicle. In such a way, the high frequency rotation of these waves produces the required magnetic whirl. The period TW of the waves' rotation is described by the following equation:

TW = (K-1)T = 0.25nT (G33)

This period is a function of the total number (n) of side propulsors and the period (T) of pulsation of the magnetic field generated by these propulsors (the value of T is expressed by equation F7).

The amplitude of the waves circulating around the Magnocraft (so also the power of the whirl) is controlled by adjusting the amplitude of the field's pulsations within the side propulsors. But the amplitudinal waves formed from the outputs of the side propulsors affect the force lines of the main magnetic circuit shown in Figure G24. The part of the field produced by the main propulsor, which previously was connected to the side propulsors which decrease their output, must jump and connect to the next side propulsors whose outputs are increasing. In this manner, the circulation of the amplitude waves activates the changes in the paths of the magnetic circuits by pushing them to join the next propulsors, and in this way causing the force lines of these circuits to rotate also. Thus the sequent pulsations of the outputs from the side propulsors produce a magnetic whirl which manifests itself as the whirling of the Magnocraft's force lines around the vehicle's central axis.

Notice that the whirl is produced for any synchronized time-varying output of the side propulsors and not just for the sinusoidal variation, shown for convenience in Figure G26. As was explained in subsection F7.1, the Magnocraft's propulsors in reality produce a field with a variation which follows a kind of "beat-type" curve, roughly represented by FR in Figure F7.

=> G7.3.