© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

G5.3. The effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber and the net magnetic force

There is a popular although completely erroneous claim repeated frequently by various "experts" in magnetism, that because of the highly uniform nature of the Earth's magnetic field, a magnetic propulsor is not supposed to be able to produce a sufficiently high net magnetic force to lift a spacecraft. (In this claim two names are used, which require explanation. These are the “uniform” nature of Earth’s magnetic field, and the “net” magnetic force. By the “uniform” nature usually is understood the extremely small gradient of change of this field that takes place in case of changing the coordinates of location. In turn the “net” force is understood as the resultant force of mutual interaction between two magnets, means the difference between mutual repulsion of the like poles of these magnets (e.g. repulsion of N from N and S from S), and mutual attraction of dislike poles (e.g. attraction of N to S, and S to N).) As is explained in this subsection, such a claim is groundless, and it also overlooks many phenomena that are vital for the subject area discussed here. But because it is stated by "experts", who should know what they are talking about, its repetition introduces a significant confusion in people whose educational backgrounds do not concentrate on the area of magnetism. For this reason, the subsection that follows explains the common mistake of "experts" stating this claim, and why the net magnetic force produced by the Oscillatory Chamber is in fact sufficiently high to lift a space vehicle.

The operational size of every bar magnet is described by two parameters, called a "physical length" and an "effective length". The physical length is the length of the physical body of a magnet; the effective length is the length of space in which the field of this magnet prevails. The physical length is very easy to measure, but the measurement of the effective length of a magnet is very difficult and impossible without very precise and complicated equipment. For this reason elementary books on magnetism simplify the equations for the forces of interaction formed by magnets. They express these forces as depending on physical length, whereas in fact they depend only on the effective lengths of the magnets involved. Such simplification does not matter at secondary school level, but it is inexcusable in a consideration of the Magnocraft's behaviour in space. This is the reason why the problem of the effective length of a magnet is highlighted here.

Contrary to physical length which is difficult to change, the effective length of a magnet changes easily. It can be increased in the following three ways, by:

a) An increase of the physical length of a given magnet.

b) An increase of the ratio between the density of the field produced by this magnet and the density of an environmental magnetic field.

c) Spinning of the force lines of the magnet with a very high angular velocity (see the relativistic phenomenon described at the end of subsection D2).

The Oscillatory Chamber represents a magnet of a relatively short physical length, but the ratio of its field density over the density of the Earth's magnetic field may be increased unlimitedly. Therefore the effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber can reach any desired value. The value of the Earth's field density determined for the latitude of the southern boundary of the United States is 5.4x10-5 [weber/m2] (see the book [1G5.3] "General Physics" by O.H. Blackwood and others, 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York 1973, ISBN 0-471-07923-5, page 424). Thus the ratio of the Magnocraft's flux density to the Earth's flux density exceeds the range of 108 (i.e. 10 to the power of 8) when the vehicle produces only the starting flux. But because this spacecraft needs a further power reserve for the purpose of accelerating and manoeuvring, the above ratio should be additionally increased by a range of 104 or even more. This allows us to estimate that the effective lengths of the Magnocraft's Oscillatory Chambers will exceed over a million times their physical dimensions. So in fact a chamber with a physical length of around one meter will extend its effective length to a value of above a thousand kilometres, thus being comparable to the diameter of the Earth. This means that in spite of a small physical size, magnetically the chamber would behave in the same way as would a magnet of such enormous length.

When the magnetic propulsor is so oriented that it is repelled by the Earth's magnetic field, and if the effective length of its Oscillatory Chambers covers the appropriate gradient of the environmental field, a significant repulsive net force must be produced. We know that planetary, solar and galactic magnetic fields are uniform by human standards, i.e. their values do not vary appreciably over the physical dimensions of any man-made object. Therefore, it is not expected that a significant net translation force is exerted on an ordinary magnet of a low output (whose density is comparable to that of the environmental magnetic field), because its effective length could not greatly exceed its physical dimension. But for the outputs from the Oscillatory Chamber exceeding the value of the starting flux, the effective length of this device is comparable to the size of the Earth. Thus it easily overcomes the uniform character of the field of the Earth, Sun or Galaxy. Therefore such a chamber must produce a significant net repulsive force capable of lifting not only this device, but also a heavy spacecraft attached to it.

This is why the Oscillatory Chamber can be used as a magnetic propulsor, and why individuals claiming otherwise are mistaken while their real knowledge on magnetism is probably shallow and incomplete.

= G5.4.

G5.3. The effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber and the net magnetic force

There is a popular although completely erroneous claim repeated frequently by various "experts" in magnetism, that because of the highly uniform nature of the Earth's magnetic field, a magnetic propulsor is not supposed to be able to produce a sufficiently high net magnetic force to lift a spacecraft. (In this claim two names are used, which require explanation. These are the “uniform” nature of Earth’s magnetic field, and the “net” magnetic force. By the “uniform” nature usually is understood the extremely small gradient of change of this field that takes place in case of changing the coordinates of location. In turn the “net” force is understood as the resultant force of mutual interaction between two magnets, means the difference between mutual repulsion of the like poles of these magnets (e.g. repulsion of N from N and S from S), and mutual attraction of dislike poles (e.g. attraction of N to S, and S to N).) As is explained in this subsection, such a claim is groundless, and it also overlooks many phenomena that are vital for the subject area discussed here. But because it is stated by "experts", who should know what they are talking about, its repetition introduces a significant confusion in people whose educational backgrounds do not concentrate on the area of magnetism. For this reason, the subsection that follows explains the common mistake of "experts" stating this claim, and why the net magnetic force produced by the Oscillatory Chamber is in fact sufficiently high to lift a space vehicle.

The operational size of every bar magnet is described by two parameters, called a "physical length" and an "effective length". The physical length is the length of the physical body of a magnet; the effective length is the length of space in which the field of this magnet prevails. The physical length is very easy to measure, but the measurement of the effective length of a magnet is very difficult and impossible without very precise and complicated equipment. For this reason elementary books on magnetism simplify the equations for the forces of interaction formed by magnets. They express these forces as depending on physical length, whereas in fact they depend only on the effective lengths of the magnets involved. Such simplification does not matter at secondary school level, but it is inexcusable in a consideration of the Magnocraft's behaviour in space. This is the reason why the problem of the effective length of a magnet is highlighted here.

Contrary to physical length which is difficult to change, the effective length of a magnet changes easily. It can be increased in the following three ways, by:

a) An increase of the physical length of a given magnet.

b) An increase of the ratio between the density of the field produced by this magnet and the density of an environmental magnetic field.

c) Spinning of the force lines of the magnet with a very high angular velocity (see the relativistic phenomenon described at the end of subsection D2).

The Oscillatory Chamber represents a magnet of a relatively short physical length, but the ratio of its field density over the density of the Earth's magnetic field may be increased unlimitedly. Therefore the effective length of the Oscillatory Chamber can reach any desired value. The value of the Earth's field density determined for the latitude of the southern boundary of the United States is 5.4x10-5 [weber/m2] (see the book [1G5.3] "General Physics" by O.H. Blackwood and others, 4th edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York 1973, ISBN 0-471-07923-5, page 424). Thus the ratio of the Magnocraft's flux density to the Earth's flux density exceeds the range of 108 (i.e. 10 to the power of 8) when the vehicle produces only the starting flux. But because this spacecraft needs a further power reserve for the purpose of accelerating and manoeuvring, the above ratio should be additionally increased by a range of 104 or even more. This allows us to estimate that the effective lengths of the Magnocraft's Oscillatory Chambers will exceed over a million times their physical dimensions. So in fact a chamber with a physical length of around one meter will extend its effective length to a value of above a thousand kilometres, thus being comparable to the diameter of the Earth. This means that in spite of a small physical size, magnetically the chamber would behave in the same way as would a magnet of such enormous length.

When the magnetic propulsor is so oriented that it is repelled by the Earth's magnetic field, and if the effective length of its Oscillatory Chambers covers the appropriate gradient of the environmental field, a significant repulsive net force must be produced. We know that planetary, solar and galactic magnetic fields are uniform by human standards, i.e. their values do not vary appreciably over the physical dimensions of any man-made object. Therefore, it is not expected that a significant net translation force is exerted on an ordinary magnet of a low output (whose density is comparable to that of the environmental magnetic field), because its effective length could not greatly exceed its physical dimension. But for the outputs from the Oscillatory Chamber exceeding the value of the starting flux, the effective length of this device is comparable to the size of the Earth. Thus it easily overcomes the uniform character of the field of the Earth, Sun or Galaxy. Therefore such a chamber must produce a significant net repulsive force capable of lifting not only this device, but also a heavy spacecraft attached to it.

This is why the Oscillatory Chamber can be used as a magnetic propulsor, and why individuals claiming otherwise are mistaken while their real knowledge on magnetism is probably shallow and incomplete.

= G5.4.