G2. The shell of the Magnocraft
© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

G2. The shell of the Magnocraft

The shell of the Magnocraft is a kind of hermetic wall which permanently separates two spaces where different environmental conditions prevail. For example, the shell will be the entire external casing of the Magnocraft because it separates the inner parts of the vehicle - containing the crew cabin and important devices - from the outside environment in which the craft flies (e.g. from vacuum, hot gases). The shell will also be the internal casing which exists inside of the vehicle and which separates a propulsor (which is filled with dangerous for health powerful magnetic field), from the living space in which the magnetic field from this propulsor should not be present. The shell will also be the wall inside the vehicle that separates a propulsor (filled with dangerous magnetic field) from the crew cabin, where the field should not be present. But the shell will not be the partition walls subdividing the crew cabin into a number of rooms, as they do not separate different environments. Shell must be made of material that displays the required mechanical properties (e.g. strength), magnetic properties, electrical properties, etc. For example, it must be hard and resistant to wear and tear, in that part that screens the living space it must be magnetoreflective – means it must reflect magnetic field in the same manner as a mirror reflects light (see subsection G39 /?/), must also display a fluently regulated ratio of transparency to the reflection of light. Depending on the function which a given shell performs in a Magnocraft, it can be called a hulk, a hermetic wall, or a partition wall.
The hulk of the Magnocraft is a kind of hermetic and extremely robust wall, which separates permanently the interior of this vehicle from the free space or hot medium that surrounds it. So the hulk is the entire external shell of Magnocraft. It separates the inner parts of this vehicle – containing crew cabin and vital equipment, from the external environment in which this vehicle is just flying (e.g. from vacuum or from hot gases).
Some characteristics of the hulk or shell of the Magnocraft, just as those of the metal panels of motor vehicles, will be the subject of changes and evolution occurring during the period of this spacecraft's production. They will be dependent on the technology available at the time of producing the particular craft, on fashion, on the function for which it is built, on the individual wishes of its crew, etc. But there will be a number of features of this hulk or shell, which, independently of changes introduced, must remain the same. An example of such a fixed feature is the external shape of the vehicle, which is strictly defined by the equations originating from the principles of its operation - see Figure G18 and subsection G4.7. The descriptions which follow will concentrate mainly on the presentation of these fixed features of the Magnocraft’s shell and hulk.
A wall in the Magnocraft is a kind of hermetic and pressure resistance partition which separates permanently two compartments or spaces of the vehicle in which different environmental conditions prevail or may prevail. An example of such a wall is a wall inside of a Magnocraft, which separates a propulsion space containing the main propulsor and dangerous to health magnetic field, from a living space in which magnetic field should not be present. (The positioning of such walls in Magnocraft of all types, and thus also the utilisation of subsequent compartments of these vehicles, is illustrated in Figure G39. In turn for a Magnocraft type K7 this positioning of walls is described in subsection P6.1 and illustrated in Figure P30.)
In all types of Magnocraft three major shapes of internal walls can be distinguished, namely: (1) in the shape of horizontal ring, (2) in the shape of vertical cylinder, and (3) in the shape of vertical plane. Walls shaped into horizontal rings appear in all Magnocraft types K5 to K10. They take form of flat horizontal ring-shaped panels assembled permanently inside of bodies of these vehicles. Such ring-shaped walls always are parallel to the floor of the vehicle, while both their surfaces are so made that depending on the position in which the vehicle flies (i.e. hanging or standing) they can serve both as floors or ceilings for each compartment which they surround. Cylindrical walls take a form of cylinders assembled vertically inside of the vehicle’s body. They appear in Magnocraft of all types. In turn a single flat vertical wall that lies in the plane of the central axis "Z" of vehicle appears only in Magnocraft types K4 and K5. It subdivides their living space into two compartments shaped as half-moons.
A partition wall in Magnocraft is a kind of hermetic and mechanically robust wall with a regulated degree of transparency, which separates from each other two separate cabins from the same compartment of the vehicle (e.g. two cabins that are occupied by two different crew members). Thus such partition walls are also all walls that separate subsequent compartments of the vehicle into several smaller cabins, but do not separate different environments from each other, or different areas of operation of separate life support systems.
Inside of the shell of the Magnocraft always several smaller volumes can be distinguished, which can be divided into three basic categories, namely: spaces, compartment, and cabins or chambers.
Spaces are such volumes of the Magnocraft in which the same environmental conditions prevail, and thus which are mutually separated from each other and from the surrounding environment by shells of a strictly defined properties. For example in Magnocraft a living space can be distinguished, which must be hermetically screened from the magnetic field, by the use of a magnetoreflective shell. Also two propulsion spaces can be distinguished (main and side) which are swept by powerful magnetic field, which separated from the environment only by a magnetoconductive section of the shell. In turn spaces can be further subdivided into smaller volumes called cabins or chambers.
A compartment in this monograph is called a fragment of Magnocraft’s interior, which is separated from the remaining part of the same vehicle with a hermetic wall. A property of a compartment is that it is able to maintain in itself a required pressure of the air, and thus also maintain conditions that allow crew to survive, even if the remaining compartments of the same vehicle are damaged and depressurized e.g. due to being hit with a meteorite. Examples of compartments in the Magnocraft can be captain’s bridge, or crew quarters. A number "p" of compartments in a given type of the Magnocraft is always equal to the coefficient of type "K" of this vehicle, i.e. p = K. Compartments must be clearly distinguished from spaces, and also from cabins and chambers.
Cabins and chambers are always only small volumes of a given compartments, separated from the rest of this volume with partition walls and doors. So if one cabin of a given compartment falls a victim of decompression, then also all other cabins of the same compartment will gradually be deprived of the air, because they are sharing with the decompressed cabin the same life support system. For example, if a meteorite damages a shell of the Magnocraft in the part that houses crew cabins, then from all cabins that are there air would gradually escape, in spite that each one of them has a separate hermetic doors. But in the remaining compartments of the vehicle the air still would be maintained, so that crew could shift there. Notice that the name cabin and chamber are both used to indicate a separate volume of a vehicle, only that a cabin designates a volume that serves to people, while a chamber is serving as a storage area for goods or substances.
The connection between subsequent compartments of Magnocraft is assured due to hermetic gates that lead through subsequent walls. A number "b" of gates in each type of Magnocraft is always equal to the coefficient of type "K", i.e. b = K. Gates must be distinguished from doors, which are much smaller and which lead to subsequent cabins or chambers.
Adequate design of every small detail and every fragment of Magnocraft’s shell is a task especially complicated. It includes not only consideration for design conditions such as forces, strength, or mutual cooperation of subsequent components, but also conditions of the use, ergonomics, safety, evacuation, life support systems, etc. For this reason in my activities I am going to limit myself to mainly working out the hulk of the Magnocraft and these parts of the shell, which screen subsequent propulsors. Detailed working out the remaining fragments of this shell, especially hermetic walls and partition walls, I will leave to the future builders of this vehicle.
In further parts of this monograph the referring to various parts of the Magnocraft’s shell is necessary, especially to fragments of the body. Therefore these fragments demand a more thorough description already at this initial stage of development. But because not all details of the body of this vehicle are already designed, in further discussions I will limit myself to only very distinctive and large parts of the vehicle. In turn less distinctive and smaller parts, such as partition walls, hermetic walls, gates, or ramps, will be discussed and illustrated only in these sparse cases when the topic of discussion directly refers to them.

=> G2.1.
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