G1. The magnetic propulsor
© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

G1. The magnetic propulsor

In subsection B2 "propulsor" was defined as "a device that produces an absolute motion of a vehicle in its environment". Examples of propulsors used in conventional vehicles
included a balloon, an aeroplane propeller and a rocket outlet. A type of propulsor must also be used in the Magnocraft to produce its motion. Of course, this advanced vehicle can not be propelled by any of our conventional devices, and it requires the development of an entirely new type of propulsor which is called here a magnetic propulsor. This subsection details what a magnetic propulsor is and how it works.
Operation of the magnetic propulsor is based on a well-known empirical observation that every two magnets of similar magnetic size must mutually repel themselves if they are appropriately orientated towards each other. Thus, when one of these magnets is Earth and the other is the magnetic propulsor itself, a suitable repulsive force must be produced if their magnetic sizes are comparable. The magnetic size of every magnet is defined by its so-called "effective length" (i.e. a length of space in which its magnetic field prevails). Therefore, in order to repel itself from the Earth's magnetic field, the magnetic propulsor must have its effective length comparable to the diameter of our planet. The effective length of a magnetic propulsor depends in turn on the value of flux that it generates. (To illustrate this dependence, magnetic flux can be compared to the gas pumped into a rubber balloon, i.e. the more gas that is pumped, the greater the volume of space the balloon stretches into.) If this flux is greater than the so-called "starting flux", the magnetic size of the propulsor becomes comparable to the size of the Earth.
Establishing the above enables us to define a magnetic propulsor. This definition states: "A magnetic propulsor is any independent source of controlled magnetic field which is
able to generate a flux in excess of the starting flux." In this definition the starting flux is the flux needed to lift a propulsor as a result of its
repulsive interaction with the Earth's magnetic field (a more detailed explanation of the starting flux is contained in subsection G5.1). When the propulsor's output exceeds the value of the starting flux, it is able to repel itself from the Earth's magnetic field. In this way it produces a lifting force sufficient to carry its own mass and the body of a vehicle attached to it. Because of this lifting capability, magnetic propulsors can be used to propel space vehicles.
In order to achieve the repulsive orientation of a magnetic propulsor in relation to the environmental magnetic field, the following two conditions must be met:
#1. Identical magnetic poles are to be pointed towards each other (i.e. N of the propulsor towards the N of the environmental magnetic field, whereas S to S).
#2. The magnetic axis of the propulsor is to be tangential to the local course of the force lines of the environmental magnetic field.
Note that on the Earth's north magnetic pole (N) this repulsive orientation can be obtained when the north pole (N) of the propulsor is pointed downwards. When above the magnetic equator, the magnetic axis of the propulsor should be horizontal and its magnetic polar orientation the same as Earth's (see Figure B2 /?/).
There are two major properties that every magnetic propulsor must display. These are:
a) Its magnetic output exceeds the value required for producing sufficiently powerful thrust and lifting forces (i.e. this output is greater than the starting flux).
b) The parameters and the direction of the produced field are controllable to the extent that complete manoeuvrability of the propelled vehicle is obtained.
Apart from the above, it is also desirable for a magnetic propulsor to possess a number of other useful properties, such as:
c) The ability to accumulate and store the magnetic energy that will be consumed during flight (i.e. the operation as a fuel-tank that stores a magnetic field instead of a combustion fuel).
d) The production of sufficient heat and electricity to satisfy the vehicle's internal consumption during a flight.
e) The performing of a number of additional functions to increase the safety and efficiency of the flight, such as the formation of an inductive shield, working as a searchlight, allowing telepathic communication on interstellar distances, etc.
All the properties listed above appear in the configurations of the Oscillatory Chambers called the twin-chamber capsule (see subsection F7.1). Therefore such configurations, after being assembled within appropriate spherical casings, are utilized as magnetic propulsors for the Magnocraft. Let us now consider the general principle on which such a capsule is to be used as a magnetic propulsor.

=> G1.1.
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