F7.1. Formation of the "twin-chamber capsule" able to control the output ...
© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

F7.1. Formation of the "twin-chamber capsule" able to control the output without
altering the energy involved

Further possibilities of controlling the output from the Oscillatory Chamber are created when two such cubical devices are arranged together to form a configuration called the "twin-chamber capsule" - see Figure F6. This capsule consists of one small inner chamber "I" freely suspended (floating) in the centre of the outer chamber "O". To insure the free flotation of the inner chamber without the danger of distending and damaging the outer one, the side dimension "ao" of the outer chamber must be √3 times larger than the dimension "ai" of the inner one, i.e.:

ao=ai√3     (F9)

(i.e. the side dimension "ao" is equal to the side dimension "ai" multiplied by the square root of "3").
The equation (F9) expresses the requirement that the longest diagonal dimension of the inner cube can not exceed the shortest distance between two parallel walls of the outer cube.
Both chambers are arranged so that their central axes coincide with the magnetic axis "m" of the entire capsule. But the magnetic polarities of both chambers are reversed, i.e. the poles of the inner chamber are oriented exactly in opposition towards the poles of its host (i.e. "S" of the inner chamber is directed towards "N" of the outer one, and vice versa). This opposite polarity of both chambers causes their outputs to mutually cancel (subtract) each other. The effect of this cancellation is that most of the force lines of the magnetic field produced by one chamber do not leave the capsule, but are circulated back into the other chamber. Therefore the magnetic field yield out to the environment by such a capsule represents only the difference between the outputs produced by its inner and outer chambers.
In the so-formed twin-chamber capsule the appropriate control of the chambers' periods of pulsation "T" allows the energy content in both chambers to be either maintained unchanged, or to be transferred from one chamber to the other. Therefore both chambers can either produce the same output, or a greater output can be produced by any of the component devices (i.e. by the outer "O" as well as by the inner "I" chamber). Technically, the balance or the transfer of energy between both chambers depends only on a phase shift between the periods "To" and "Ti" of their pulsations. (As this was described in subsection F6.5, these periods in turn are controlled, according to the equation F7, solely by changing the "s" factors of the chambers' dielectric gases.) In general, when both chambers pulsate in harmony (i.e. have their mutual phase shift equal to 0°, 90°, or multiple of 90°) they maintain their energy content without any change. But when the phase shift between their pulsations is formed, the magnetic energy begins to flow between both chambers. The more this phase shift differs from 0° or 90° (and thus the more it nearers to "45°), the more energy flows from one chamber to the other. The direction of flow is from the chamber whose pulsations obtain the leading phase shift (i.e. whose period "T" was speeded up in relation to the period "T" of the other chamber) to the chamber whose pulsations are slower.
To illustrate the above principle of energy flow with an example, let us imagine two people on separate swings bound together by an elastic (rubber) rope. Both swings in this example represent two chambers of a given twin-chamber capsule, whereas the elastic rope represents the magnetic field which links these chambers. When they swing with zero phase shift (i.e. when their movements exactly correspond) the energy of their oscillations remains unaffected. But when they form a phase shift in their oscillations, the person whose swing is ahead will pull the other one through the elastic rope. In this way the energy will flow from the faster swinger to the slower one.
When both chambers of a twin-chamber capsule yield exactly the same output, the force lines of a magnetic field produced by the inner chamber "I" are forming a close loop with the magnetic field produced by the outer chamber "O". This loop is locked inside the capsule. Therefore in such a case both chambers may produce an extremely high magnetic field, but this field will be entirely "circulated" inside of the capsule, and no magnetic flux will appear outside of the capsule. The magnetic flux trapped in such a looping and hermetically locked inside a twin-chamber capsule is called the "circulating flux". In illustrations from this chapter it is labelled ("C"). The circulating flux performs an important function in the twin-chamber capsules, as it bounds and stores the magnetic field which later may be used as the capsules' energy supply. Therefore the circulating flux in twin-chamber capsules of the future will represent the equivalent to "fuel" from the contemporary propulsion systems. Probably in the future twin-chamber capsules will be built, their main and only function will be to accumulate energy. The entire energy stored within such accumulators of the future will take the form of the circulating flux, so that outside these capsules there will be no noticeable magnetic fields.
When the energy content in both chambers of a capsule is unequal, as illustrated in Figure F6, the magnetic flux produced by this chamber, which has a greater output, is divided into two parts, i.e. ("R") the "resultant flux" conducted to the outside of the twin-chamber capsule, and ("C") the "circulating flux" involved in internal looping within the chamber having a smaller output. At the same time the magnetic flux produced by the device having a smaller output is entirely involved in the circulating flux and is not conducted outside the capsule. In Figure F6 the greater output is produced by the outer chamber "O", therefore its flux is divided into ("C") and ("R") parts. But the entire output of the inner chamber "I" in this Figure is involved in the circulating flux ("C"). Of course in real capsules, depending on the necessity, it is possible to control their chambers in such a manner, that either chamber can produce the higher output, i.e. the outer "O" or the inner "I". Therefore also either of these two chambers can provide the resultant flux.
Because the greater magnetic flux can be produced either by the inner or the outer chamber, the twin-chamber capsules can operate in two modes called: (1) the "INNER flux prevalence", and (2) the "OUTER flux prevalence". In the mode of INNER flux prevalence, the resultant flux is produced by the inner chamber, whereas the outer chamber circulates its entire output inside the capsule. In the mode of OUTER flux prevalence, the resultant flux is produced by the outer chamber, whereas the inner chamber bounds its entire output into the circulating flux. The visual appearance of capsules operating in these two modes is shown in Figure F6. The differences in their appearance result from the fact that a highly dense magnetic field is transparent only to an observer who looks at it along its force lines. For the observer looking from any other direction such a field is nontransparent, and resembles black smoke. Therefore an outside observer looking at the twin-chamber capsule's outlet should see only the interior of that chamber which produces the resultant flux running into his/her direction, whereas the outlines of the remaining chamber which produces a circulating flux would appear to be black.
The twin-chamber capsule puts into the environment only the resultant flux that represents the difference from the outputs of both chambers. The circulating flux is always locked inside this capsule and never reaches the environment. Therefore, this configuration of chambers allows the fast and efficient control over the resultant magnetic flux conducted to the environment. This control is achieved without a change in the total amount of energy contained in the capsule, and only through shifting this energy from the outer to the inner chamber and vice versa. Practically, this means that the output given by the capsule to the environment can be easily changed, while the energy content of the capsule constantly remains at the same level. In order to realize the enormous capabilities of such control, the most important states of the magnetic field put into the environment by the twin-chamber capsule are described below.
(1) The complete extinguishing of the capsule's output. If the inner and the outer chambers contain the same amount of magnetic energy and produce equal magnetic fluxes, their entire production is looped inside of the twin-chamber capsule and no field is conducted to the environment. Of course, in such a case the enormous magnetic energy of the capsule still remains trapped inside, and can be redirected outside at any time by simple alteration to the capsule's controls.
(2) A smooth change of the capsule's magnetic output within the range from its minimal (i.e. zero) to maximal value. Such a change in the resultant output requires only appropriate transfer of the magnetic energy from one chamber into the other. The maximal output from this capsule is achieved when one of its chambers concentrates almost all of the energy, whereas the output from the remaining chamber is almost zero.
(3) The production of a magnetic field that has any required orientation of the magnetic poles. Depending on which of the two chambers (inner or outer) reaches a dominating (prevailing) output, the polarity of the resultant flux ("R") will reflect the polarity of this dominating chamber.
(4) An almost instant reversal of polarity for the capsule's resultant magnetic output (e.g. the exchange of its north pole into the south pole, and vice versa). This reversal can be achieved merely by shifting quickly the magnetic energy between two chambers and without any need for a mechanical rotation of the capsule.
The ability to strictly control the variations in time (curvature) of the resultant flux is another advantage of the twin-chamber capsules. An example of such control, concerning the resultant flux whose variations in time follow a beat-type curve, is shown in Figure F7. When the frequencies of pulsations in both chambers are different (e.g. when the inner chamber produces a flux "FI" whose frequency is two times higher than the frequency of the flux "Fo" produced by the outer chamber), the algebraic subtraction of both these fluxes produces a bit-type variation in time of the resultant flux "FR". In this way, a wide range of resultant flux variations in time can be obtained, through the simple altering of frequencies of inner and outer fluxes (or more strictly through altering periods of pulsations "T" which are bound with frequencies "f" by equation (F8): f=1/T). It is equally simple to produce a pulsating resultant flux following one of many possible beat-type curves, as well as a number of alternating fields of different courses. In each of these cases the period of the resultant flux variation can be controlled at the required level.
Probably the most significant advantages of the control described here is that it enables twin-chamber capsule to produce a constant magnetic field. When the frequencies of oscillations in both chambers are the same, then the two counter-oriented magnetic fluxes mutually suppress their pulsating components. If this coincides with the equal amplitudes of fields from both chambers, the resultant flux "FR" is then non-oscillating (constant in time), identical in character to the one provided by the permanent magnets. This capability to produce a constant magnetic field will further enlarge the already extensive scope of applications for this configuration of Oscillatory Chambers.
Because of the direct relationship existing between the frequency "f" and the period "T" of the field pulsation (see equation (F8): f=1/T), the entire control over the resultant flux curvature is achieved solely through the alterations of the "s" factor, as has already been described in subsection F6.5.
The above explanations demonstrate how easy and versatile the control capabilities of twin-chamber capsules are. This will have a definite bearing on the future applications of such arrangements of chambers. It is easy to predict that almost all advanced magnetic propulsion systems of the future will utilize twin-chamber capsules instead of just single Oscillatory Chambers. Out of all the propulsion systems described in this monograph, such capsules will be used in the propulsors of the Magnocraft (see descriptions in chapter F) and in Magnetic Personal Propulsion (see descriptions in chapter E).

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