F1. Why there is a necessity to replace the electromagnet by the Oscillatory Chamber
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© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

F1. Why there is a necessity to replace the electromagnet by the Oscillatory Chamber

When we observe the blinding achievements in one discipline, without a delay we assume that our progress is equally spectacular in all directions. However, if we examine the matter closely, we may discover the areas where almost no progress has been achieved in the last two centuries, and where we are still treading in the same place. In order us to realize one of the most frequently encountered areas of such a inventive stagnation, let us ask now the following question: "What progress has been achieved recently in the area of principles of the controlled magnetic field production?". To our surprise the answer is "none". At the beginning of the Mars exploration era we still use exactly the same principle of the magnetic field production as that one which was used over 170 years ago, i.e. the principle discovered in 1820 by the Danish professor, Hans Oersted, and depending on the application of the magnetic effects created by an electric current flowing through the coils of a conductor. The device utilizing this principle, called an "electromagnet", is now one of the most archaic inventions still in common use because of the lack of a more suitable solution. We can realize how outdated its operation is from the following example: if the progress in propulsion systems were equal to that of magnetic field production devices, our only mechanical vehicle would still be a steam engine.
Electromagnets possess a whole range of inherent drawbacks, which make it impossible to raise their output above a particular - and not very high - level. These disadvantages can in no way be eliminated, because they result from the principle of operation of these devices alone. Below the most significant of these inherited and thus totally unremovable drawbacks of electromagnets are listed. Their explanation with more details will be provided in subsection F6 which presents the way in which each of these drawbacks is eliminated in the operation of the Oscillatory Chamber.
#1. Electromagnets create deflecting forces which tense their coils in the radial direction trying to tear these coils apart. These forces are produced as the result of mutual interaction between the magnetic field produced by an electromagnet, and the same coils of the conductor which created this field. The field tries to push these coils out from its own range (according to the action of the "left-hand rule" often called the "motor effect"). Thus the deflecting forces so formed in coils are of a type identical to the ones utilized in the operation of electric motors. In order to prevent the electromagnet from being torn apart, these electromagnetic containment forces must ultimately be opposed by some form of physical structure. The mechanical strength of this structure counter-balances the deflecting forces resulting from the output of a given electromagnet. Of course this structure significantly increases the weight of any really powerful steady-field magnet. Furthermore, when the current's flow in electromagnets exceeds a certain level, the deflecting forces grow to such an extent that they are not able to be balanced further by the mechanical strength of the structure. Thus, the gradual increase in output of electromagnets eventually causes coils to explode. In this way too high an increase in the output of electromagnets results in their self-destruction via an explosion. Such explosions of electromagnets are quite frequent occurrences in scientific laboratories, therefore the most powerful electromagnets must be placed in special bunkers which confine their possible explosions.
#2. Electromagnets require the continuous supply of electric energy if they are to produce a magnetic field whose all parameters are controllable (i.e. a field whose parameters can be changed in accordance with the application requirements). If continuous energy supply is cut off, the control over the electromagnet's field finishes. This requirement of controllability causes that during the production of powerful magnetic fields, a single electromagnet consumes the output from a whole electricity plant.
#3. Electromagnets cause significant energy losses. The electric current flowing through coils of a conventional electromagnet releases a vast amount of heat (see Joule's law of electric heating). This heat not only decreases the energetic efficiency of the magnetic field production, but also, when the energies involved are high, it leads to a melting of the coils.
The superconductive electromagnet removes the heating from a current flowing through resistance. However, it introduces another loss of energy resulting from the necessity to maintain a very low temperature of the coils. This also causes a permanent consumption of energy which decreases the efficiency of such a magnet. Moreover, it should be noted here that the high density of magnetic fields cancels the effect of superconductivity and thereby restores a resistance to the coils. Thus the superconductive electromagnets are only capable to produce magnetic fields the density of which is lower than the threshold value causing the return of electric resistivity to their coils.
#4. Electromagnets are prone to electric wear-out. The geometrical configuration of electromagnets is formed in such a way that the direction of the greatest electric field strength does not coincide with the path of the conductor through the coil (i.e. forces of this field try to short-cut the flow of current across coils, whereas the layer of insulation channel the current to flow through the coils and along a spiral). This directs the destructive action of electric energy into the insulation, causing its eventual damage (short-circuit followed by the electric breakdown) which initiates the destruction of the entire device.
#5. Electromagnets have a limited controllability, e.g. can not be controlled by weak signals. The parameters of their magnetic field can be controlled only through the changes in the power of the electrical energy supply. Therefore controlling the electromagnets requires the same powers as those powers involved in the production of a magnetic field.
The only way to eliminate the five disadvantages listed above is to apply a completely different principle of magnetic field production. Such a principle, invented by myself ((the author), will be presented in later sections of this chapter. Because this new principle utilizes the mechanism of oscillatory discharges occurring inside a cubical chamber, it is called an "Oscillatory Chamber".
The principle of the Oscillatory Chamber avoids the limitations which prevent an increase of output in electromagnets (the way it is achieved is presented in subsection F6). Also, it promises a more effective and convenient preparation and exploitation, long life without the necessity of maintenance, a very high field-to-weight ratio, and a wide range of applications (e.g. as an energy storage, propulsion device, source of magnetic fields, etc. - see Table F1). The explanations that follow (especially the one from subsection F7) will describe the mechanisms for achieving all these additional advantages. Therefore, the lack in the Oscillatory Chamber of inherited drawbacks of electromagnets, combined with these numerous additional operational advantages, make highly desirable to promote the fast development of this device, so that in the not-too-distant future it may replace electromagnets presently in use.

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