B3. Application of the Periodic Principle to propulsion systems
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© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

B3. Application of the Periodic Principle to propulsion systems

The Periodic Principle recommends to "disclose directions of the future by identifying patterns of the past". The application of this recommendation to the development of propulsion systems allowed the author to identify the repetitive regularity governing the inventions of subsequent propelling devices. This regularity can be expressed in a definition which has a short and a long version. Let us first write this definition, and then explain its meaning. The short version states that:
"Each motor must have a corresponding propulsor".
The long version states that (see also Table B1):

"All known forms of propulsion are invented in pairs. Each such pair consists of a motor and a corresponding propulsor. Both, the motor and the propulsor, utilize exactly the same working medium and operate in a very similar manner. For each level of utilization of a particular working medium two subsequent motor-propulsor pairs are built. These two pairs form a single generation of a particular propulsion system. After key devices of one such generation are built, the path becomes cleared for inventing devices of the next generation. This next generation incorporates propulsion systems of a higher level of advancement."
To explain the above in simple terms, the appearance on Earth of a new generation of propulsion systems is preceded by the invention of a motor, then (by a different inventor) a corresponding propulsor is built, which forms a pair with this motor. The completion of the propulsor usually occurs no later than 200 years after the completion of the motor's technology. Both - the motor and the propulsor - utilize the same working medium, are based on the same physical phenomena, and demonstrate a close analogy in construction and principles of operation. To realize how striking the similarities between both propelling devices of each pair are, let us consider, as an example, the internal combustion engine (which is a motor of the second pair in the third generation of matter circulating propulsion systems - see Table B1) and the space rocket (which is a propulsor from the same pair). If one removes a piston from the cylinder of an internal combustion engine, he/she obtains an outlet for the space rocket jet. The fuel supply, the process of combustion, and the phenomena involved in the creation of motion remain unchanged for both the above propelling devices. The other examples of similarly corresponding pairs are: the windmill and the sailing boat, aneroid (formerly used to propel clocks - an example of such "Atmospheric Clock" is still exhibited in Clapham's Clock Museum, Whangarei, New Zealand; the French makers of this clock claimed it was "as close to perpetual motion as you'll ever get") and balloon, pneumatic motor and hovercraft, etc. - compare two consecutive columns from Table B1.
The action of the Periodic Principle for the propulsion systems is illustrated by the Periodic Table B1. Each row from this Table presents four subsequent propelling devices constituting one complete generation of propulsion systems. Inventions of all four propelling devices that belong to the same generation form a single cycle of development of propulsion systems. Within each generation, two subsequent pairs of a motor and a corresponding propulsor are invented. Each of these pairs occupies a separate column in which two additional sub-columns are distinguished for each single propelling device. At the bottom part of each column and sub-column the descriptions of the devices presented therein are provided. On the left side of each row the characteristic attributes of the generation of propulsion systems presented in this row are specified. These attributes describe:
a) the general type of working medium applied by this generation (this medium can be either based on a circulation of (1) force, (2) matter (mass), or (3) magnetic field force lines);
b) the subsequent number of this generation within the general type of working medium under consideration (i.e. 1, 2, or 3); and
c) the energy carriers exploited by this generation of propulsion systems (e.g. (1) pressure, (2) inertia and pressure, or (3) internal energy, inertia, and pressure).
Note that Table B1 also shows the general direction in which the subsequent working media develop (top arrow), as well as the direction of the development of individual propelling devices built for any one of these media (bottom/right arrow).
We have learned that particular principles of operation can be applied to a number of different technical versions of the same propelling device. For example the internal combustion engine can be built as: a Diesel engine or a petrol engine, a two-stroke or four-stroke engine, a piston engine or a turbo-engine. If we analyze each of these versions we will find that all of them employ exactly the same properties of the working medium and utilize exactly the same set of phenomena. The only differences appear in the technical implementation of the device that releases these phenomena. Therefore from the point of view of the Periodic Principle all such versions represent the same propulsion which, however, is built in different technical implementations. No matter how many of these different implementations of a particular propulsion are completed, they still belong to the same stage of our development and are not able to lift our civilization to a higher level. In order to progress and advance we must complete different propulsion systems, not different technical versions of the same propulsion (e.g. the Magnocraft instead of magnetic railways which represent only a linear version of the electric motor). Notice that Table B1 always lists the first or the most representative technical version of every subsequent propulsion system, no matter how many versions of this propulsion were completed. For example, the sail in Table B1 shown as the first propulsor employing the pressure of the circulating stream of matter (air), is only the first one of many possible propulsion systems operating on this principle. The other propulsors utilizing the same principle are: an aeroplane wing, a parachute, and a hang-glider.
Table B1 illustrates also the difference between the first and second pairs in each generation of propulsion systems. The essence of this difference is that the first pair uses a special device (energy transferor) to produce a working medium (e.g. a steam generator in a steam engine, or a combustion chamber in a jet propulsor) physically separated from the working space where the motion is created, whereas the second pair of propulsion produces a working medium inside the working space (e.g. combustion gases in a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, or in the outlet of a space rocket).
The analysis of Table B1 reveals that each next generation of propulsion systems repeats the technology already utilized in the lower generation built for the same type of working medium, but this technology achieves a higher level of efficiency and employs more advanced energy carriers. In this way, the development of propulsion systems takes the shape of an ascending helix (spiral), where each coil symmetrically repeats the general pattern of a pervious invention, but on a higher level of efficiency. This helix carries on a number of key attributes from one propulsion to another. Therefore the characteristics of propulsion systems discovered so far define very strictly the details of the propelling devices to be completed in the future. The key information about future propulsion systems, which the Periodic Principle reveals, is: (1) the working medium utilized in a subsequent propulsion, (2) the employed attributes of this working medium (e.g. energy carrier such as force, inertia, or internal energy, and the kinds of phenomena involved), (3) the principles of operation of a new device, (4) the general design and the similarities to the other propulsion systems already completed, (5) the approximate date when our civilization will attain the level required for the completion of this device.
Knowing all the above, the synthesizing of the final shape of a new propulsion system is just a matter of ordinary design routine and development procedures.

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