B2.1. The working medium
@ Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

B2.1. The working medium

From the analysis of the propulsion systems completed so far, it becomes evident that only three types of circulating agents can provide usable working mediums. These are: (1) a circulation of forces, (2) a circulation of matter (masses), and (3) a circulation of magnetic field force lines. Thus, all the known working mediums can be classified into one of three general types (see the first column in Table B1), depending on which of the above agents the particular medium represents. Because during the development of our civilization these three consecutive types of working medium were discovered and utilized in sequence, we may talk about three eras in our history when a particular general type of medium was dominant. And so in ancient and medieval times the era of media based on the circulation of forces prevailed (e.g. wheel and axle, flywheel, spring). Since the invention of the steam engine (1769) until now, the era of media based on the circulation of matter has been prevalent (e.g. those used in a windmill, watermill, airscrew, boat propeller, jet propulsion). At present we are approaching the third era, where the circulation of magnetic field force lines will be employed. Up to now we have completed only the first and the most primitive device, the electric motor, which utilizes the circulation of magnetic field force lines. But soon a number of more advanced propulsion systems of this kind will become operational.
For every type of working medium three different generations of propulsion systems are completed (see Table B1). In each subsequent generation further attributes of the working medium are utilized as energy carriers. The first generation always uses force interactions only (e.g. pushing, pulling, pressure, suction, repulsion, attraction) created by the working medium. The second generation, in addition to these force interactions, also employs inertia-related actions. The third generation of propulsion systems utilizing a particular general type of working medium makes use of force interactions, inertia-related actions, and in addition the impact of internal energy (e.g. elasticity, heat).

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