© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

G11.2.1.1. Determination of the Magnocraft's dimensions from the scorch marks left at landing sites

It was proven in subsection G4 that the shape and dimensions of the Magnocraft must follow strictly a set of equations listed in Figure G18. Thus a knowledgeable observer who

applies these equations should be able to determine every detail of the Magnocraft's structure if only he or she knows the diameter "d" on which the vehicle's side propulsors are located. In turn descriptions from subsection G11.2.1 have shown, that the diameter "d" is precisely reflected by the dimensions of a scorched circle left at the landing site by a vehicle whose magnetic circuits looped under the ground (see Figure G33). Both above findings put together justify the search for a simple technique which would allow the exact diameter "d" of a Magnocraft to be determined by the measurement of marks that this spacecraft leaves after landing. Such a technique is described below.

The equation for the theoretical value of the diameter "d" can be obtained by combining two equations (G12) and (G16) already derived in subsection G4. The final equation that expresses this diameter was already discussed in subsection G4 (see equation (G12) over there) and it takes the following form:

Cc

d = ─── •2K {where Cc=0.5486 [metres]} (G34)

√2

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "*" means multiplication, the symbol "/" means division, the symbol "+" means addition, the symbol "-" means subtraction, the symbol "sqrt(2)" means square root from "2", while the symbol "2**K" means "2" to power "K", the equation (G34) takes the following form: d = (Cc/sqrt(2))*(2**K). (So it states that “d” is equal to the constant Cc=0.5486 multiplied by “2” to power “K” and divided by the square root of “2”.)

The constant "Cc" from the equation (G34) is called a "cosmic cubit". It represents the unit of length used by builders of the Magnocraft for defining all its dimensions. Thus "Cc" represents a kind of "Cosmic Meter". There is a strong justification for believing that all civilizations that are mature enough to build the Magnocraft, standardize their units of length, using the same cubit. Therefore, in all instances of a landed Magnocraft, probably the unit "Cc" must take exactly the same value. In the calculations from this monograph this value is always equal to Cc=0.5486 [metres].

If it is assumed that the builders of a particular Magnocraft use the above specified cubit (Cc=0.5486 [metres]), then determining the type of Magnocraft that has landed becomes quite an easy task. It involves only the following steps: (1) measurement of the geometrical dimensions (e.g. diameters "do", "di", or "da" – see Figure G33) of the circle scorched on the ground by a landed vehicle, (2) calculation of the nominal diameter "d" of a given vehicle (for this purpose appropriate corrective equations provided in this subsection must be used), and (3) determining from the equation (G34) or from column "d" of Table G1 the type of vehicle which made the circle.

The problem becomes more complex, although still resolvable, if we do not know the length of the cubit used by the builders of a particular Magnocraft, or if we wish to verify the cubit that was determined by someone else (e.g. determined by myself). In such cases the examination of scorch marks left by a landed vehicle must establish two different values, i.e. the number of side propulsors "n" and the diameter "d". Knowing these two values, the type "K" of the landed vehicle can be established from the equation (G9), and then the value of the cubit "Cc" used by builders of this vehicle can be calculated from equation (G34).

The determination of the number "n" of side propulsors in a particular landed vehicle is quite an easy task, as each one of these propulsors should scorch a clearly visible mark on the ground opposite its own outlet - see (2) from Figure G34. These marks scorched by individual side propulsors are usually more extensively damaged than the circular trail that joins them together, as the scorching occurring just under the outlets from the propulsors is the most intensive (e.g. the grass below usually is so burned that it exposes bare soil). Therefore, in most cases the determining of "n" depends on the simple counting of the number of extensively scorched patches appearing on the complete circumference of the landing site under examination.

A more difficult task is the precise measurement of the diameter "d", especially as the accuracy of determining the value of cubit "Cc" depends on the precision of this measurement. The complication of this measurement comes from the unknown height at which a particular vehicle hovered, and in some cases also from an unknown position of a landed vehicle (standing or hanging position). As can be seen from Figure G34, the magnetic circuits that scorch the landing site are curved inwards. Therefore the higher a vehicle hovers, the smaller is the outer diameter "do" of the scorched site, and the greater the difference between this diameter "do" and the nominal diameter "d" that we intend to determine. Only a Magnocraft whose base touches the ground would produce scorch marks with dimensions that would almost exactly correspond to the dimensions of the vehicle.

Fortunately for us, there is a distinctive regularity in the curvature of the Magnocraft's magnetic circuits. This regularity allows us to develop a correction technique for an "under" error, to be applied in determining the exact value of "d" diameter (an "under" error appears when: do< d). This regularity is illustrated in Figure G33a. A Magnocraft shown in Figure G33a hovers at an unknown height "hx" which is greater than the critical height "hc". For such a height two circles (not one) must be scorched on the ground, the inner one of which is an equivalent of the central mark (1) shown in Figure G34b. The regularity discussed here depends on such curving of the vehicle's magnetic circuits, so that we are able to take a following assumption: “the changes in the inner "di" and outer "do" diameters of these two scorched circles are symmetrical for a particular height”. This assumption means, that the distance between the outer diameter "do" of the outer scorched circle and the diameter "d" of the vehicle, is equal to the distance between the inner diameter "di" of the inner circle and the site's central point (see part a) in Figure G33). This can be expressed mathematically by the following equation:

d-do =di -zero (G35)

Note that "zero" in this equation represents the diameter of the site's central point. If this equation (G35) is changed so as to define the value of the "d" diameter, it will take the following final form:

d=do +di (G36)

(i.e. for an “under” error, the nominal diameter "d" is equal to the sum of diameters: "do" plus "di").

The above equation (G36) expresses the essence of the correction technique described here for an "under" error (i.e. the error distinctive for the sites which contain two concentric rings). It states that if we measure precisely the outer diameter "do" of the outer ring scorched by a landed Magnocraft (or a UFO – see also subsection O5.1 /?/), and also the inner diameter "di" of the inner ring scorched on the same site, the algebraic sum of these two diameters must yield the exact value for the nominal diameter "d" that we are searching for.

In all cases where a Magnocraft hovers at a height "hy" smaller than the critical height "hc", so that its central mark is not shaped into a circle, the measured value of "do" must lie between "d" and "(d+a)" - see part "b" of Figure G33. In these cases the measurement of "do" diameter involves an "over" error (i.e. an "over" error appears when: do > d). For such landing sites the appropriate correction technique can be developed as well. The principle of this technique for an "over" error is shown in part "b" of Figure G33. It depends on the precise measurement of the diameter "da" of the most intensively scorched patch in the single central mark left below the main propulsor. Knowing this diameter "da" and the outer diameter "do" of the outer ring, the exact value for "d" can be determined from the following equation:

d=do -da (G37)

(i.e. for an “over” error, the nominal diameter "d" is equal to the difference of diameters: "do" minus "da").

The manner of deriving the equation (G37) is similar to that already described for the equation (G36).

Zealand and England) mysterious circles of scorched vegetation keep appearing. All the attributes of these circles correspond to those from the Magnocraft's landing sites - see the description from subsection G11.1. I have conducted field measurements for a large number of such circles, using the correction techniques described in this subsection. As a result I have established that the diameters of these circles exactly fulfil the equation (G34), and that the cubit used for their formation corresponds to the one applied in this monograph (i.e. Cc = 0.5486 [metres]). The summary of results obtained during these measurements, together with photographs of the circles, are presented in subsection O5.1 /?/ and in separate monograph [5/3].

=> G11.2.2.

G11.2.1.1. Determination of the Magnocraft's dimensions from the scorch marks left at landing sites

It was proven in subsection G4 that the shape and dimensions of the Magnocraft must follow strictly a set of equations listed in Figure G18. Thus a knowledgeable observer who

applies these equations should be able to determine every detail of the Magnocraft's structure if only he or she knows the diameter "d" on which the vehicle's side propulsors are located. In turn descriptions from subsection G11.2.1 have shown, that the diameter "d" is precisely reflected by the dimensions of a scorched circle left at the landing site by a vehicle whose magnetic circuits looped under the ground (see Figure G33). Both above findings put together justify the search for a simple technique which would allow the exact diameter "d" of a Magnocraft to be determined by the measurement of marks that this spacecraft leaves after landing. Such a technique is described below.

The equation for the theoretical value of the diameter "d" can be obtained by combining two equations (G12) and (G16) already derived in subsection G4. The final equation that expresses this diameter was already discussed in subsection G4 (see equation (G12) over there) and it takes the following form:

Cc

d = ─── •2K {where Cc=0.5486 [metres]} (G34)

√2

Notice, that after expressing the above in notation of computer languages, in which the symbol "*" means multiplication, the symbol "/" means division, the symbol "+" means addition, the symbol "-" means subtraction, the symbol "sqrt(2)" means square root from "2", while the symbol "2**K" means "2" to power "K", the equation (G34) takes the following form: d = (Cc/sqrt(2))*(2**K). (So it states that “d” is equal to the constant Cc=0.5486 multiplied by “2” to power “K” and divided by the square root of “2”.)

The constant "Cc" from the equation (G34) is called a "cosmic cubit". It represents the unit of length used by builders of the Magnocraft for defining all its dimensions. Thus "Cc" represents a kind of "Cosmic Meter". There is a strong justification for believing that all civilizations that are mature enough to build the Magnocraft, standardize their units of length, using the same cubit. Therefore, in all instances of a landed Magnocraft, probably the unit "Cc" must take exactly the same value. In the calculations from this monograph this value is always equal to Cc=0.5486 [metres].

If it is assumed that the builders of a particular Magnocraft use the above specified cubit (Cc=0.5486 [metres]), then determining the type of Magnocraft that has landed becomes quite an easy task. It involves only the following steps: (1) measurement of the geometrical dimensions (e.g. diameters "do", "di", or "da" – see Figure G33) of the circle scorched on the ground by a landed vehicle, (2) calculation of the nominal diameter "d" of a given vehicle (for this purpose appropriate corrective equations provided in this subsection must be used), and (3) determining from the equation (G34) or from column "d" of Table G1 the type of vehicle which made the circle.

The problem becomes more complex, although still resolvable, if we do not know the length of the cubit used by the builders of a particular Magnocraft, or if we wish to verify the cubit that was determined by someone else (e.g. determined by myself). In such cases the examination of scorch marks left by a landed vehicle must establish two different values, i.e. the number of side propulsors "n" and the diameter "d". Knowing these two values, the type "K" of the landed vehicle can be established from the equation (G9), and then the value of the cubit "Cc" used by builders of this vehicle can be calculated from equation (G34).

The determination of the number "n" of side propulsors in a particular landed vehicle is quite an easy task, as each one of these propulsors should scorch a clearly visible mark on the ground opposite its own outlet - see (2) from Figure G34. These marks scorched by individual side propulsors are usually more extensively damaged than the circular trail that joins them together, as the scorching occurring just under the outlets from the propulsors is the most intensive (e.g. the grass below usually is so burned that it exposes bare soil). Therefore, in most cases the determining of "n" depends on the simple counting of the number of extensively scorched patches appearing on the complete circumference of the landing site under examination.

A more difficult task is the precise measurement of the diameter "d", especially as the accuracy of determining the value of cubit "Cc" depends on the precision of this measurement. The complication of this measurement comes from the unknown height at which a particular vehicle hovered, and in some cases also from an unknown position of a landed vehicle (standing or hanging position). As can be seen from Figure G34, the magnetic circuits that scorch the landing site are curved inwards. Therefore the higher a vehicle hovers, the smaller is the outer diameter "do" of the scorched site, and the greater the difference between this diameter "do" and the nominal diameter "d" that we intend to determine. Only a Magnocraft whose base touches the ground would produce scorch marks with dimensions that would almost exactly correspond to the dimensions of the vehicle.

Fortunately for us, there is a distinctive regularity in the curvature of the Magnocraft's magnetic circuits. This regularity allows us to develop a correction technique for an "under" error, to be applied in determining the exact value of "d" diameter (an "under" error appears when: do< d). This regularity is illustrated in Figure G33a. A Magnocraft shown in Figure G33a hovers at an unknown height "hx" which is greater than the critical height "hc". For such a height two circles (not one) must be scorched on the ground, the inner one of which is an equivalent of the central mark (1) shown in Figure G34b. The regularity discussed here depends on such curving of the vehicle's magnetic circuits, so that we are able to take a following assumption: “the changes in the inner "di" and outer "do" diameters of these two scorched circles are symmetrical for a particular height”. This assumption means, that the distance between the outer diameter "do" of the outer scorched circle and the diameter "d" of the vehicle, is equal to the distance between the inner diameter "di" of the inner circle and the site's central point (see part a) in Figure G33). This can be expressed mathematically by the following equation:

d-do =di -zero (G35)

Note that "zero" in this equation represents the diameter of the site's central point. If this equation (G35) is changed so as to define the value of the "d" diameter, it will take the following final form:

d=do +di (G36)

(i.e. for an “under” error, the nominal diameter "d" is equal to the sum of diameters: "do" plus "di").

The above equation (G36) expresses the essence of the correction technique described here for an "under" error (i.e. the error distinctive for the sites which contain two concentric rings). It states that if we measure precisely the outer diameter "do" of the outer ring scorched by a landed Magnocraft (or a UFO – see also subsection O5.1 /?/), and also the inner diameter "di" of the inner ring scorched on the same site, the algebraic sum of these two diameters must yield the exact value for the nominal diameter "d" that we are searching for.

In all cases where a Magnocraft hovers at a height "hy" smaller than the critical height "hc", so that its central mark is not shaped into a circle, the measured value of "do" must lie between "d" and "(d+a)" - see part "b" of Figure G33. In these cases the measurement of "do" diameter involves an "over" error (i.e. an "over" error appears when: do > d). For such landing sites the appropriate correction technique can be developed as well. The principle of this technique for an "over" error is shown in part "b" of Figure G33. It depends on the precise measurement of the diameter "da" of the most intensively scorched patch in the single central mark left below the main propulsor. Knowing this diameter "da" and the outer diameter "do" of the outer ring, the exact value for "d" can be determined from the following equation:

d=do -da (G37)

(i.e. for an “over” error, the nominal diameter "d" is equal to the difference of diameters: "do" minus "da").

The manner of deriving the equation (G37) is similar to that already described for the equation (G36).

***

At this point it should be mentioned that in various parts of the world (especially in New Zealand and England) mysterious circles of scorched vegetation keep appearing. All the attributes of these circles correspond to those from the Magnocraft's landing sites - see the description from subsection G11.1. I have conducted field measurements for a large number of such circles, using the correction techniques described in this subsection. As a result I have established that the diameters of these circles exactly fulfil the equation (G34), and that the cubit used for their formation corresponds to the one applied in this monograph (i.e. Cc = 0.5486 [metres]). The summary of results obtained during these measurements, together with photographs of the circles, are presented in subsection O5.1 /?/ and in separate monograph [5/3].

=> G11.2.2.