G11.2.1. Landing sites in which magnetic circuits looped under the ground
© Dr. Eng. Jan Pająk

G11.2.1. Landing sites in which magnetic circuits looped under the ground

In Figure G33 is shown an example of the Magnocraft hovering so close to the surface of the ground that its magnetic circuits are looping (turning back) under the surface. Let us now discuss separately each one out of three cases of the height of hovering illustrated in Figure G33, starting from the most frequent case “b”.
#1. A case shown in part “b” of Figure G33. This is the most typical, and thus the most frequent in practice, case of Magnocraft’s landing. In this case columns of a strong, pulsating magnetic field produced by the particular propulsors have no opportunity to spread out before they enter the ground. Therefore their action upon plants and soil is very concentrated, and affects only the small areas located exactly opposite the outlets from the propulsors - see part b) in Figure G34. Moreover, there is an area of unaffected vegetation contained between the place where the column of field from the main propulsor (1) enters underground, and places where the columns from side propulsors (2) enter underground. So in spite that spinning field from Magnocraft’s propulsors is very destructive, and in spite that this non-affected area is contained within the reversible parts of the magnetic circuits, the highly concentrated magnetic field does not act upon it directly and does not damage it noticeably.
As an effect of the Magnocraft's field acting upon plants and soil located at the outlets from the propulsors, a very characteristic pattern of marks is formed by a non-spinning magnetic field. This pattern consists of a central mark (1) surrounded by a ring of side marks (2). The side marks (2) are located almost exactly under the outlets from the side propulsors (with the correction for the curvature of magnetic circuits), as during landing the magnetic axes of these propulsors are kept perpendicular to the Magnocraft's base. The nominal diameter "d" of the circle on which these marks are located is dependent on the type of landed vehicle, and corresponds to the data collected in Table G1. Also the number of marks is equal to the number "n" of side propulsors in this type of Magnocraft, or is equal to four - if the vehicle is landing with only the "four-circuits" mode of operation (see subsection G8). On flat ground, the location of the central mark (1) must be shifted from the geometrical centre of the landing site. This shifting is caused by the slanting of the magnetic axis of the main propulsor to a position tangential to the local course of the force lines of the Earth's magnetic field. Therefore for a single vehicle landing in a standing position, the central mark (1) is displaced in the direction of magnetic north in the Northern hemisphere and in the direction of magnetic south in the Southern hemisphere - see Figure G34b. In turn during landings of a single Magnocraft oriented in a hanging position (see Figure G35), or landings of configurations of many Magnocraft in which the polarisation of propulsors is identical as that in a single Magnocraft flying in a hanging position, the slanting of a scorched mark from the main propulsor is in the direction opposite that the one described above – i.e. towards south in the Northern Hemisphere and towards north in the Southern Hemisphere. In turn the degree of this displacement from the central location on the site, depends on the inclination angle (I) of the Earth's magnetic field, and on the height of the suspension of the main propulsor above the level of the ground.
In this point it is worth to remind, that the Magnocraft's log computer is able to utilize this displacement of the central mark for the detection and maintenance of the vehicle's distance from the ground (similarly as boats do with their "acoustic depth sounder"). When this "sounder" is switched on, all types of landed Magnocraft produce similarly-shaped landings in which the central mark touches the ring of marks from the side propulsors (in such a location the main magnetic circuits respond the most to even a small change in the vehicle's height).
Let us now discuss the dimensional parameters of Magnocraft landings. The outer diameter “do” of a ring scorched by side propulsors (or more strictly by main magnetic circuits “M” that leave these propulsors) depends on four factors, namely on (1) type of the Magnocraft, (2) height on which the landed Magnocraft hovers, (3) position in which the Magnocraft hovers (standing or hanging), and (4) mutual slanting of the floor of the vehicle and surface of the ground on which it lands. In case of a physical touching the ground by a floor of the Magnocraft oriented in a standing position, this diameter “do” is going to be very close to the nominal diameter “d” on which axes of all side propulsors are positioned, and which is listed in Table G1. An exact equation binding these two diameters in such case is going to take the form: do = d + a, where “a” is a side dimension of the Oscillatory Chamber that provides the magnetic output which produced given marks. In turn the number “n” of separate scorching marks produced in the soil by subsequent side propulsors during landings in a throbbing or magnetic lens mode of operation, is either equal to the number “n” of side propulsors (see Table G1), or equal to 3 or 4 – if a given Magnocraft landed in a three or four circuit mode of operation – for details see descriptions from subsection G8.
For the throbbing mode of the Magnocraft's operation, the above marks are the only ones left at the landing site. But if the vehicle's propulsion during landing remains in a magnetic whirl mode of operation, then the circulation of the magnetic field causes additional scorching of the circular trail (see (3) in Figure G34c) joining together the individual marks from the side propulsors. This trail is formed by the force lines of the main magnetic circuits jumping from each side propulsor to the other during the formation of a magnetic whirl.
#2. A case shown in part “a” of Figure G33. Of course, the manner of landing explained in the previous item is not the only possible way that Magnocraft may land in a standing position. In situations illustrated in parts “a” and “c” of Figure G33 still possible are two other characteristic manners of a “manual hovering”, which could be called a) scouting, and c) sitting.
The scouting shown in part “a” of Figure G33 is a manner of Magnocraft’s landing during which the vehicle hovers above the ground at a height "hx" which is slightly more than the so-called "critical height - hc", but still less than the span "hm" of the vehicle's main magnetic circuits “M” (see part "a" of Figure G33). In such a case the curvature of the vehicle's magnetic circuits causes a patch of the central mark (1) to expand into an inner circle located within the outer circle (2) scorched by the side propulsors. The illustration of this curvature and the effect that it has on the shape of the landing marks is shown in part "a" of Figure G33.
#3. A case shown in part “c” of Figure G33. It can be called “sitting”. The sitting shown in part “c” of Figure G33 is a manner of Magnocraft’s landing during which the vehicle hovers above the ground at a height "hz" which is less than the span "hs" of the vehicle's side circuits “S” (see part "c" of Figure G33). Thus, independently from marks discussed previously, namely from the central mark (1) and to the outer circle (2), an additional ring appears scorched by the side circuit “S” outside of the outer circle (2). The illustration of this ring and the effect that it has on the shape of the landing marks is shown in part "c" of Figure G33.

=> G11.2.1.1.
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